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Journal of Advanced Transportation
Volume 2019, Article ID 8641492, 19 pages
Research Article

A Bilevel Programming Model and Algorithm for the Static Bike Repositioning Problem

Qiong Tang,1,2,3 Zhuo Fu,1,3 and Meng Qiu1,3

1School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China
2College of Economics and Management, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421002, China
3Smart Transport Key Laboratory of Hunan Province, Hunan, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Qiong Tang; nc.ude.unyh@gnatgnoiq

Received 12 February 2019; Accepted 16 May 2019; Published 2 June 2019

Academic Editor: Juan C. Cano

Copyright © 2019 Qiong Tang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In this paper, by taking the outsourcing transportation mode into account, a bilevel programming model is proposed to formulate the static bike repositioning (SBR) problem, which can be used to determine the number of bikes loaded and unloaded at each station and the optimal truck routes in bike sharing systems (BSS). The upper-level BSS providers determine the optimal loading and unloading quantities at stations to minimize the total penalties. The lower-level truck owner pursues the minimum transportation route cost. An iterated local search and tabu search are developed to solve the model. Computational tests on a set of instances from 20 to 200 bikes demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and algorithms proposed, together with some insightful findings.