Table 3: Research gaps in port and hinterland ITT studies.

Port ITTHinterland ITT
StrategicalTactical and OperationalStrategicalTactical and Operational

Planning Problems(i) Infrastructure investment and potential ITT cost should be studied in an integrated way.
(ii) Port ITT demand is rarely studied.
(iii) Integrated multi-modality systems should be further investigated.
(iv) Dynamics of the information systems should be considered in ITT planning.
(i) Organization of rail ITT system is rarely studied.
(ii) The ITT operations should be formulated taking into account upstream and downstream transport and terminal handling operations.
(i) External effects should be investigated and formulated based on a multi-modality ITT system.(i) Integration between multiple terminals and vehicles has received less attention.
(ii) Freight consolidation and vehicle scheduling are rarely studied with a multi-modality fleet.
(iii) Seaport-dry port rail service is rarely studied.

Stakeholders(i) Stakeholders and ways to coordinate terminal operator and multiple transport operators should be further studied.
(ii) Stakeholders’ share of responsibility revenue is rarely investigated.
(i) Conflicting interests between different policymakers are rarely studied.
(ii) Stakeholders and ways to coordinate terminal operator and transport operator should be further studied.

Methodologies(i) Quantitative methodologies are needed to reflect different actors’ financial interests.
(ii) ITT operations should be more precisely formulated.
(i) Quantitative methodologies are needed to reflect different actors’ financial interests.
(ii) Powerful algorithms are needed to handle the large-scale planning problems and nonlinear factors.