Numerical Study on the Required Surrounding Gas Conditions for Stable Autoignition of an Ethanol SprayRead the full article
Journal of Combustion publishes research focusing on on all aspects of combustion science, both practical and theoretical. This includes, fuels, dentonators, flames and fires, energy transfer, physical phenomena and combustion chemistry.
Journal of Combustion maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Evaluation of a 38 L Explosive Chamber for Testing Coal Dust Explosibility
Coal dust explosions are the deadliest disasters facing the coal mining industry. Research has been conducted globally on this topic for decades. The first explosibility tests in the United States were performed by the Bureau of Mines using a 20 L chamber. This serves as the basis for all standardized tests used for combustible dusts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of a new 38 L chamber for testing coal dust explosions. The 38 L chamber features design modifications to model the unique conditions present in an underground coal mine when compared to other industries where combustible dust hazards are present. A series of explosibility tests were conducted within the explosive chamber using a sample of Pittsburgh pulverized coal dust and a five kJ Sobbe igniter. Analysis to find the maximum pressure ratio and Kst combustible dust parameter was performed for each trial. Based upon this analysis, observations are made for each concentration regarding whether the explosibility test was under-fueled or over-fueled. Based upon this analysis, a recommendation for future explosibility testing concentrations is made.
A Two-Fluid Conditional Averaging Paradigm for the Theory and Modeling of Turbulent Premixed Combustion
This paper extends a recent theoretical study that was previously presented in the form of a brief communication (Zimont, C&F, 192, 2018, 221-223), in which we proposed a simple splitting method for the derivation of two-fluid conditionally averaged equations of turbulent premixed combustion in the flamelet regime, formulated more conveniently for applications involving unclosed equations without surface-averaged unknowns. This two-fluid conditional averaging paradigm avoids the challenge in the Favre averaging paradigm of modeling the countergradient scalar transport phenomenon and the unusually large velocity fluctuations in a turbulent premixed flame. It is a more suitable conceptual framework that is likely to be more convenient in the long run than the traditional Favre averaging method. In this article, we further develop this paradigm and pay particular attention to the problem of modeling turbulent premixed combustion in the context of a two-fluid approach. We formulate and analyze the unclosed differential equations in terms of the conditions of the Reynolds stresses , and the mean chemical source , which are the only modeling unknowns required in our alternative conditionally averaged equations. These equations are necessary for the development of model differential equations for the Reynolds stresses and the chemical source in the advanced modeling and simulation of turbulent premixed combustion. We propose a simpler approach to modeling the conditional Reynolds stresses based on the use of the two-fluid conditional equations of the standard “” turbulence model, which we formulate using the splitting method. The main problem arising here is the appearance in these equations of unknown terms describing the exchange of the turbulent energy and dissipation rate in the unburned and burned gases. We propose an approximate way to avoid this problem. We formulate a simple algebraic expression for the mean chemical source that follows from our previous theoretical analysis of the transient turbulent premixed flame in the intermediate asymptotic stage, in which small-scale wrinkles in the instantaneous flame surface reach statistical equilibrium, while the large-scale wrinkles remain in statistical nonequilibrium.
Critical Velocity and Backlayering Conditions in Rail Tunnel Fires: State-of-the-Art Review
The use of interurban and urban trains has become the preferred choice for millions of daily commuters around the world. Despite the huge public investment for train technology and mayor rail infrastructure (e.g., tunnels), train safety is still a subject of concern. The work described herein reviews the state of the art on research related to critical velocity and backlayering conditions in tunnel fires. The review on backlayering conditions includes the effect of blockages, inclination, and the location of the fire source. The review herein focuses on experimental and theoretical research, although it excludes research studies using numerical modeling. Many studies have used scaled tunnel structures for experimental testing; nevertheless, there are various scaling challenges associated with these studies. For example, very little work has been done on flame length, fire source location, and the effect of more than one blockage, and how results on scaled experiments represent the behaviour at real-scale. The review sheds light on the current hazards associated with fires in rail tunnels.
Dynamic Simulation on Deflagration of LNG Spill
The deflagration characteristics of premixed LNG vapour-air mixtures with different mixing ratios were quantitatively and qualitatively investigated by using CFD (computational fluid dynamics) method. The CFD model was initially established based on theoretical analysis and then validated by a lab-scale deflagration experiment. The flame propagation behaviour, pressure-time history, and flame speed were compared with the experimental data, upon which a good agreement was achieved. A large-scale deflagration fire during LNG bunkering process was conducted using the model to investigate the flame development and overpressure effects. Mesh independence and time scale were tested in order to obtain the suitable grid resolution and time step. Deflagration cases with two different LNG vapour volume fractions, i.e., 10.4% and 15.0%, were simulated and compared. The one with a volume fraction of 10.4% which was around stoichiometric mixing ratio had the highest flame propagating speed. High flame velocity observed in the simulation was coupled with the thin flame front where overpressure occurred. The CFD model could capture the main features of deflagration combustion and account for LNG fire hazard which could provide an in-depth insight when dealing with complicated cases.
Building Fire: Experimental and Numerical Studies on Behaviour of Flows at Opening
Compartment fire is conducted by complex phenomena which have been the topics of many studies. During fire incident in a building, damage to occupants is not often due to the direct exposition to flames but to hot and toxic gases resulting from combustion between combustibles and surrounding air. Heat is therefore taken far from the source by combustion products which could involve a rapid spread of fire in the entire building. With the intention of studying the impact of the opening size on the behaviour of fire, experimental and computational studies have been undertaken in a reduced scale room including a single open door. Owing to Froude modelling, the obtained results have been transposed into full scale results. In accordance with experiments, numerical studies enabled the investigation of the influence of the ventilation factor on velocities of incoming air and outgoing burned gases and on areas of the surfaces crossed by these fluids during full-developed fire. Comparison of the deduced mass flow rates with the literature reveals an approval agreement.
Review of Oxidation of Gasoline Surrogates and Its Components
There has been considerable progress in the area of fuel surrogate development to emulate gasoline fuels’ oxidation properties. The current paper aims to review the relevant hydrocarbon group components used for the formulation of gasoline surrogates, review specific gasoline surrogates reported in the literature, outlining their utility and deficiencies, and identify the future research needs in the area of gasoline surrogates and kinetics model.