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Journal of Combustion publishes research focusing on on all aspects of combustion science, both practical and theoretical. This includes, fuels, dentonators, flames and fires, energy transfer, physical phenomena and combustion chemistry.
Journal of Combustion maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Experimental Study on Fire Behaviour in Room following the Disposition of Openings
Many experiments have been done by authors to study the influence of the natural ventilation through openings on fire behaviour in compartments. It has been revealed that fire will be influenced by the size of existing openings which can be an open window, an open door, or both of them. Concerning the last case, the literature does not give any information about the impact of the arrangement of these openings on the behaviour of fire. The present paper aims then to carry out a comparative study of the disposition of the window compared to the door, on the behaviour of fire in a compartment. To achieve that objective, fire experiments were conducted in a reduced scale room of dimensions 1.20 m 1.20 m 1.02 m, which can be modulated into two configurations. The first one named “PFC configuration” is the case where the open door and the open window are in nonopposite walls. The second one named “PFO configuration” is the case where these both openings are in opposite walls. After having performed several fire tests in both configurations using the same amount of diesel fuel as fire source, results revealed that the fuel burns faster in the PFC configuration compared to that in the PFO configuration. This is due to a global mass loss rate of against, respectively. Beyond a difference of 20°C observed on the maximal temperature of burned gases located at ceiling, results also revealed the production of ghosting flames in the PFO configuration.
The Role of Magnetic Field Orientation in Vegetable Oil Premixed Combustion
This study observed the influence of magnetic field orientation on the premixed combustion of vegetable oil. The results show that the magnetic field increased the laminar burning velocity because the spin of electron became more energetic and changes the spin of hydrogen proton from para to ortho. The increase of flame speed became larger on vegetable oil with stronger electric poles. The attraction magnetic field gives the strongest effect against the increase of flame speed and makes flame stability limit wider toward lean equivalence ratio. This is because O2 with the paramagnetic nature is pumped more crossing flame from the south pole (S) to north pole (N) whereas the heat energy carried by H2O from the reaction product with the diamagnetic nature is pumped more crossing flame in the N pole to the S pole. This made the combustion close to Lewis number equal to unity, whereas in the repulsion magnetic poles, S-S, more O2 is pumped into the flame while more heat is pumped out of the flame, and thus, combustion in the flame is leaner and reactions are not optimal. Conversely, at N-N poles, more heat carried by H2O was pumped into the flame while more O2 was pumped out of the flame. As a result, combustion in the flame is richer and the reaction is also not optimal. As a consequence, the velocity of the laminar flame at the repelling poles is lower than that of attracting poles.
Numerical Study on the Required Surrounding Gas Conditions for Stable Autoignition of an Ethanol Spray
This study deals with the development of controlled-ignition technology for high-performance compression ignition alcohol engines. Among the alcohol fuels, we focus on ethanol as it is a promising candidate of alternative fuels replacing petroleum. The objective of this study is to reveal the physical and chemical phenomena in the mixture formation process up to autoignition of an ethanol spray. In our previous numerical study, we showed the mixture formation process for gas oil and ethanol sprays in the form of spatial excess air ratio and temperature distributions inside a spray and their temporal histories from fuel injection. The results showed a good agreement with those of theoretical analysis based on the momentum theory of spray penetration. Calculation was also confirmed as reasonable by comparing to the experimental results. Through the series of our experimental and numerical studies, the reason for poor autoignition quality of an ethanol spray was revealed, that is, difficulty in simultaneous attainments of autoignition-suitable concentration and temperature in the spray mixture formation due to its fuel and thermal properties of smaller stoichiometric air-fuel ratio and much greater heat of evaporation compared to conventional diesel fuels. However, autoignition of an ethanol spray has not been obtained yet in either experiments or numerical analysis. As the next step, we numerically examined several surrounding gas pressure and temperature conditions to make clear the surrounding gas conditions enough to obtain stable autoignition. One of the commercial CFD codes CONVERGE was used in the computational calculation with the considerations of turbulence, atomization, evaporation, and detailed chemical reaction. Required surrounding gas pressure and temperature for stable autoignition with acceptable ignition delay of an ethanol spray and feasibility of the development of high-performance compression ignition alcohol engines are discussed in this paper.
Evaluation of a 38 L Explosive Chamber for Testing Coal Dust Explosibility
Coal dust explosions are the deadliest disasters facing the coal mining industry. Research has been conducted globally on this topic for decades. The first explosibility tests in the United States were performed by the Bureau of Mines using a 20 L chamber. This serves as the basis for all standardized tests used for combustible dusts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of a new 38 L chamber for testing coal dust explosions. The 38 L chamber features design modifications to model the unique conditions present in an underground coal mine when compared to other industries where combustible dust hazards are present. A series of explosibility tests were conducted within the explosive chamber using a sample of Pittsburgh pulverized coal dust and a five kJ Sobbe igniter. Analysis to find the maximum pressure ratio and Kst combustible dust parameter was performed for each trial. Based upon this analysis, observations are made for each concentration regarding whether the explosibility test was under-fueled or over-fueled. Based upon this analysis, a recommendation for future explosibility testing concentrations is made.
A Two-Fluid Conditional Averaging Paradigm for the Theory and Modeling of Turbulent Premixed Combustion
This paper extends a recent theoretical study that was previously presented in the form of a brief communication (Zimont, C&F, 192, 2018, 221-223), in which we proposed a simple splitting method for the derivation of two-fluid conditionally averaged equations of turbulent premixed combustion in the flamelet regime, formulated more conveniently for applications involving unclosed equations without surface-averaged unknowns. This two-fluid conditional averaging paradigm avoids the challenge in the Favre averaging paradigm of modeling the countergradient scalar transport phenomenon and the unusually large velocity fluctuations in a turbulent premixed flame. It is a more suitable conceptual framework that is likely to be more convenient in the long run than the traditional Favre averaging method. In this article, we further develop this paradigm and pay particular attention to the problem of modeling turbulent premixed combustion in the context of a two-fluid approach. We formulate and analyze the unclosed differential equations in terms of the conditions of the Reynolds stresses , and the mean chemical source , which are the only modeling unknowns required in our alternative conditionally averaged equations. These equations are necessary for the development of model differential equations for the Reynolds stresses and the chemical source in the advanced modeling and simulation of turbulent premixed combustion. We propose a simpler approach to modeling the conditional Reynolds stresses based on the use of the two-fluid conditional equations of the standard “” turbulence model, which we formulate using the splitting method. The main problem arising here is the appearance in these equations of unknown terms describing the exchange of the turbulent energy and dissipation rate in the unburned and burned gases. We propose an approximate way to avoid this problem. We formulate a simple algebraic expression for the mean chemical source that follows from our previous theoretical analysis of the transient turbulent premixed flame in the intermediate asymptotic stage, in which small-scale wrinkles in the instantaneous flame surface reach statistical equilibrium, while the large-scale wrinkles remain in statistical nonequilibrium.
Critical Velocity and Backlayering Conditions in Rail Tunnel Fires: State-of-the-Art Review
The use of interurban and urban trains has become the preferred choice for millions of daily commuters around the world. Despite the huge public investment for train technology and mayor rail infrastructure (e.g., tunnels), train safety is still a subject of concern. The work described herein reviews the state of the art on research related to critical velocity and backlayering conditions in tunnel fires. The review on backlayering conditions includes the effect of blockages, inclination, and the location of the fire source. The review herein focuses on experimental and theoretical research, although it excludes research studies using numerical modeling. Many studies have used scaled tunnel structures for experimental testing; nevertheless, there are various scaling challenges associated with these studies. For example, very little work has been done on flame length, fire source location, and the effect of more than one blockage, and how results on scaled experiments represent the behaviour at real-scale. The review sheds light on the current hazards associated with fires in rail tunnels.