Table 8: Summary of estimated parameters assumed for calculation ([9, 26, 3033] and own calculations).

PCE for raceway ponds1.5%

Biomass concentration for cultivation with raceway ponds0.8kgDM*/m³
Electricity demand for cultivation with raceway ponds1W/m²
PCE for closed photobioreactors5%
Biomass concentration for cultivation with closed photobioreactors4.0kgDM*/m³
Specific reactor volume for cultivation with closed photobioreactors0.05m³/m²
Electricity demand for cultivation with closed photobioreactors100W/m³
Lower heating value microalgae biomass30MJ/kgDM*
CO2 bound in microalgae biomass2.5kgCO2/kgDM*
Lipid content of microalgae biomass TAG***40%
Lower heating value microalgae oil38.2MJ/kg
Lower heating value microalgae press cake23MJ/kgDM*
Separation efficiency of centrifuge90%
Electricity demand centrifuge3.6MJ/m³
Oil separation efficiency90%
Electricity demand for oil extraction0.35MJ/kgDM*
Heat demand for oil extraction1.75MJ/kgDM*
Conversion rate algae oil into biodiesel90%
Electricity demand conversion to biodiesel0.043MJ/kg
Heat demand for conversion to biodiesel0.750MJ/kg
Lower heating value of biodiesel37MJ/kg
Conversion efficiency microalgae press cake to biogas90%
Electricity demand conversion to biogas0.48MJ/nm³ **
Heat demand for conversion to biogas1.5MJ/nm³ **
Lower heating value biogas20MJ/nm³ **
CO2 emission of electricity107gCO2/MJ
CO2 emission of heat72gCO2/MJ
Lower heating value of fossil diesel42.5MJ/kg
CO2 emission of fossil diesel3.1kgCO2/kg
Lower heating value of natural gas43.2MJ/kg
CO2 emission of natural gas2.4kgCO2/kg

*DM: dry matter; **nm³: standard cubic meter, ***TAG: triacylglyceride.