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Journal of Combustion
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4062945, 12 pages
Research Article

An Experimental Insight into the Smoldering-Flaming Transition Phenomenon

Department of Aerospace Engineering, SRM University, Chennai 603203, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Vinayak Malhotra

Received 21 September 2016; Revised 25 October 2016; Accepted 1 November 2016; Published 1 January 2017

Academic Editor: Jun Han

Copyright © 2017 Poorva Shrivastava et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Transitional phenomena of smoldering combustion over thin solid fuels are investigated. An experimental setup was upraised and implications of both smoldering and flaming external heat sources are estimated. Incense sticks were used as potential fuel and external smoldering heat source along with a fixed candle flame. The role of key controlling parameters, namely, separation distance and number of external heat sources in horizontal and vertical direction, was extensively examined. The surfacing issues of enclosure effect and the external heat sources orientation are addressed. The study primarily aims at understanding the feasibility and spontaneity of transition owing to external heat sources (both flaming and smoldering). Forward heat transfer significantly deviates qualitatively and quantitatively with varying separation distance in both directions. Number of external heat sources intensifies the transition phenomenon in smoldering combustion. With practical considerations, external heat sources arrangement and orientation have substantial effect on the combustion process.