Knowledge and Practice on Breast Self-Examination and Associated Factors among Summer Class Social Science Undergraduate Female Students in the University of Gondar, Northwest EthiopiaRead the full article
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Endometrial Tumor Classification by Histomorphology and Biomarkers in the Nurses’ Health Study
Objective. Endometrial cancers have historically been classified by histomorphologic appearance, which is subject to interobserver disagreement. As molecular and biomarker testing has become increasingly available, the prognostic significance and accuracy of histomorphologic diagnoses have been questioned. To address these issues for a large, prospective cohort study, we provide the results of a centralized pathology review and biomarker analysis of all incidental endometrial carcinomas occurring between 1976 and 2012 in the Nurses’ Health Study. Methods. Routine histology of all () cases was reviewed for histomorphologic diagnosis. Cases were subsequently planted in a tissue microarray to explore expression of a variety of biomarkers (e.g., ER, PR, p53, PTEN, PAX2, AMACR, HNF1β, Napsin A, p16, PAX8, and GATA3). Results. Histologic subtypes included endometrioid (87.2%), serous (5.6%), carcinosarcoma (3.9%), clear cell (1.7%), and mixed type (1.7%). Biomarker results within histologic subtypes were consistent with existing literature: abnormal p53 was frequent in serous cases (74%), and HNF1β (67%), Napsin A (67%), and AMACR (83%) expression was frequent in clear cell carcinomas. Our dataset also allowed for examination of biomarker expression across non-preselected histologies. The results demonstrated that (1) HNF1β was not specific for clear cell carcinoma, (2) TP53 mutations occurred across many histologies, and (3) GATA3 was expressed across multiple histotypes, with 75% of positive cases demonstrating high-grade features. Conclusions. Our findings establish the subtypes of endometrial cancer occurring in the Nurses’ Health Study, corroborate the sensitivity of certain well-established biomarkers, and call into question previously identified associations between certain biomarkers (e.g., HNF1B) and particular histotypes.
Comprehensive Knowledge towards Cervical Cancer and Associated Factors among Women in Durame Town, Southern Ethiopia
Low awareness about cervical cancer and poor screening practice are some of the contributing factors for the high burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess comprehensive knowledge towards cervical cancer and associated factors among reproductive age women visiting Durame General Hospital. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2019. Systematic random sampling technique was employed to select study participants. Pretested interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Binary and multiple logistic regression analysis was done. Adjusted odds ratio with a 95% CI was used to determine the presence and strength of associations between independent and outcome variable. Variables with value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Among the 237 women enrolled, more than half (55.7%) have ever heard about cervical cancer. Health professionals were major source of information. Half of respondents (51.5%) had good knowledge towards cervical cancer. Urban residence (, 95% CI (1.19-4.35)), having formal employment (, 95% CI (1.53-5.59)), and knowing someone with cervical cancer (, 95% CI (2.32-11.71)) were found to have significant association with good knowledge towards cervical cancer. The comprehensive knowledge of women towards cervical cancer was found to be insufficient. Provision of community-based health education with health professionals needs to be emphasized.
The Importance of Cancer Registry Linkage for Studying Rare Cancers in Prospective Cohorts
Large prospective cohort studies may offer an opportunity to study the etiology and natural history of rare cancers. Cancer diagnoses in observational cohort studies are often self-reported. Little information exists on the validity of self-reported cancer diagnosis, especially rare cancers, in Canada. This study evaluated the validity of self-reported cancer diagnosis in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (ATP), a provincial cohort in Canada. ATP data were linked to the Alberta Cancer Registry (ACR). The first instance of self-reported cancer in a follow-up survey was compared to the first cancer diagnosis in the ACR after enrollment. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were estimated for the reporting of cancer status, reporting of common or rare cancer, and reporting of site-specific cancer. Logistic regression analysis explored factors associated with false positive, false negative, and incorrect cancer site reporting. In the 30,843 ATP participants who consented to registry linkage, there were 810 primary cancer diagnoses in the ACR and 959 self-reports of first cancer post-enrollment, for a cancer status sensitivity of 92.1% (95% CI: 90.0-93.9) and PPV of 77.8% (95% CI: 75.0-80.4). Compared to common cancers, rare cancers had a lower sensitivity (62.8% vs. 89.6%) and PPV (35.8% vs. 84.5%). Participants with a rare cancer were more likely to report an incorrect site than those with a common cancer. Rare cancers were less likely to be captured by active follow-up than common cancers. While rare cancer research may be feasible in large cohort studies, registry linkage is necessary to capture rare cancer diagnoses completely and accurately.
Prognostic Worth of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in Patients with Head and Neck Tumors
Introduction. Head and neck tumors (HNT) are tumors that normally occur at the head and neck region of the body. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been found to be highly expressed in breast and other tumors; therefore, there is the need to investigate the level of EGFR expression among patients with head and neck tumors in Ghana. Method. The level of EGFR expression was determined in head and neck tumor and control head and neck tissues with quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results. The level of EGFR expressions was high in tumor tissues than in the control tissues. There was a significant difference of value 0.025 among the ages >40 and ≤ 40 when the high and low level of EGFR was compared in the head and neck malignant tumor. The area under the curve for the high expression of EGFR among the malignant head and neck tumors was 0.901 with a specificity of 86.4%. Conclusion. EGFR can serve as a prognostic marker in monitoring patients with HNT as well as a molecular therapeutic target.
Breast Cancer in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Overview
Introduction. Breast cancer remains the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. It encompasses considerable heterogeneity in pathology, patient clinical characteristics, and outcome. This study describes factors associated with overall survival (OS) of breast cancer in an updated national database. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with breast cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2016 based on the National Cancer Database. Categorical variables were summarized using frequencies/percentages, whereas continuous variables were summarized using the median/interquartile range (IQR). OS was explored using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results. Data from patients were analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 18-90). 75% were non-Hispanic (NH) White; 11% were NH-Black; 4.7% were Hispanic-White; 0.1% were Hispanic-Black; and 3.4% were Asian. Most cases (73%) presented with ductal carcinoma histology; while 15% with lobular carcinoma. Rarer subtypes included epithelial-myoepithelial, fibroepithelial, metaplastic, and mesenchymal tumors. OS was associated with molecular subtype, histologic subtype, and AJCC clinical staging. Survival also correlated with race: a cohort including Asians and Pacific Islanders had the best survival, while Black patients had the worst. Finally, facility type also impacted outcome: patients at academic centers had the best survival, while those at community cancer programs had the worst. Conclusion. This large database provides a recent and comprehensive overview of breast cancer over 12 years. Molecular subtype, histologic subtype, stage, race, and facility type were correlated with OS. In addition to the educational perspective of this overview, significant factors impacting the outcome identified here should be considered in future cancer research on disparities.
Changes in the Demographic and Clinicopathological Characteristics of Thyroid Cancer: A Population-Based Investigation in Algeria, 1993-2013
Over the last three decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide. The reasons for this increase remain controversial. In Algeria, however, to date, information on thyroid cancer has been limited to a hospital-based case series. We analyzed data from a population-based cohort study in Oran District, Algeria, to describe demographic and clinicopathological characteristics of patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer between 1993 and 2013. Medical records and pathology reports of thyroid cancer patients who had surgery were reviewed. Changes in demographic and clinicopathological features over the 21-year period are described. During the study period, thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 1248 women (86.5%, mean age years) and 195 men (23.4%, mean age years). Most cases (83.1% for women and 69.8% for men) sought a diagnosis following a self-neck check. The most common histologic types were papillary (58.3%), follicular (29.7%), anaplastic (4.1%), and medullary (0.8%) carcinomas. The incidence of papillary carcinomas significantly increased () while the incidence of other histologic types significantly decreased over time. Tumor size overall significantly decreased () while the frequency of small (≤20 mm) and larger (>20 mm) carcinomas significantly increased (). The frequency of thyroid cancers with capsular effractions and angioinvasions also decreased over time. Thyroid cancer incidence in Algeria has increased substantially in line with international trends with changes in clinical practice being a possible contributing factor. However, the increasing papillary-to-follicular cancer ratio may be due to changes in iodine nutrition status in Algeria. Further research, including exploration of biological and molecular features of thyroid cancer, will enable a better understanding of risk factors and etiopathogenetic mechanisms.