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Development and Validation of an Algorithm to Identify Endometrial Adenocarcinoma in US Administrative Claims Data
Background. Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most prevalent type of endometrial cancer. Diagnostic codes to identify endometrial adenocarcinoma in administrative databases, however, have not been validated. Objective. To develop and validate an algorithm for identifying the occurrence of endometrial adenocarcinoma in a health insurance claims database. Methods. To identify potential cases among women in the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRD), published literature and medical consultation were used to develop an algorithm. The algorithm criteria were at least one inpatient diagnosis or at least two outpatient diagnoses of uterine cancer (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) 182.xx) between 1 January 2010 and 31 August 2014. Among women fulfilling these criteria, we obtained medical records and two clinical experts reviewed and adjudicated case status to determine a diagnosis. We then estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the algorithm. Results. The PPV estimate was 90.8% (95% CI 86.9–93.6), based on 330 potential cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Women who fulfilled the algorithm but who, after review of medical records, were found not to have endometrial adenocarcinoma, had diagnoses such as uterine sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus, endometrial stromal sarcoma, ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, leiomyosarcoma, or colon cancer. Conclusions. An algorithm comprising one inpatient or two outpatient ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for endometrial adenocarcinoma had a high PPV. The results indicate that claims databases can be used to reliably identify cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma in studies seeking a high PPV.
Impact of Primary Care Delay on Progression of Breast Cancer in a Black African Population: A Multicentered Survey
Background. Reports are scanty on the impact of long primary care interval in breast cancer. Exploratory reports in Nigeria and other low-middle-income countries suggest detrimental impact. The primary aim was to describe the impact of long primary care interval on breast cancer progression, and the secondary aim was to describe the factors perceived by patients as the reason(s) for long intervals. Method. Questionnaire-based survey was used in 9 Nigerian tertiary institutions between May 2017 and July 2018. The study hypothesis was that the majority of patients stayed >30 days, and the majority experienced stage migration in primary care interval. Assessment of the impact of the length of interval on tumor stage was done by survival analysis technique, and clustering analysis was used to find subgroups of the patient journey. Results. A total of 237 patients presented to primary care personnel with tumor ≤5cm (mean 3.4±1.2cm). A total of 151 (69.3%, 95% CI 62.0-75.0) stayed >30 days in primary care interval. Risk of stage migration in primary care interval was 49.3% (95% CI 42.5%-56.3%). The most common reasons for long intervals were symptom misinformation and misdiagnosis. Clustering analysis showed 4 clusters of patients’ experience and journey: long interval due to distance, long interval due to misinformation, long interval due to deliberate delaying, and not short interval—prepared for treatment. Conclusion. The majority of patients stayed longer than 30 days in primary care interval. Long primary care interval was associated with a higher risk of stage migration, and more patients reported misinformation and misdiagnosis as reasons for a long interval.
Segmental Distribution of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Correlates with Microvascular Invasion in Liver Explants Undergoing Transplantation
Introduction. Microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is a poor prognostic factor after liver transplantation and/or resection. Any correlation between MVI and segmental location of HCC has yet to be studied. Our aim is to evaluate the segmental location of HCC and any correlation with the presence of MVI, portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in explanted livers, and the recurrence of HCC after transplantation. Another objective of the study is to assess the treatment history (ablation or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)) and size of the tumor with respect to the risk of MVI. Methods. A single center, retrospective chart review, including 98 HCC patients, aged 18 years and older who had liver transplantation in our institute between 2012 and 2017. We reviewed the radiological images of the HCC tumors, the pathological findings of the explanted livers, and the follow-up imaging after transplantation. Results. 98 patients with the diagnosis of HCC underwent liver transplantation between 2012 and 2017. The mean age of the cohort was 63 ± 8.2. Males represented 75% and Caucasian race represented 75% of the cohort. The most common etiology of cirrhosis was chronic hepatitis C virus infection followed by alcohol abuse and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with percentages of 50%, 23%, and 10%, respectively. Microvascular invasion was found in 16% of the patients while PVT and the recurrence of HCC were found in 17% and 6 % of the cohort, respectively. MVI was found in 10 single HCC and 6 multifocal HCC. Right lobe HCC had more MVI when compared to the left and multilobar HCC, with percentages of 11%, 2%, and 3%, respectively. Localization of HCC in segment 8 was associated with the highest percentage of MVI when compared to all other segments. The risk of MVI in segment 8 HCC was 3.5 times higher than the risk from the other segments (p=0.002) while no vascular invasion was found in segments 1, 3, and 5. The risk of vascular invasion in untreated HCC is 3 times the risk in treated HCC (P=0.03). Conclusion. Our data indicate that the risk of microvascular invasion is highest in tumors localized to segment 8. The size and number of HCC tumors were not associated with an increased risk of microvascular invasion.
Impact of Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis and Its Treatment on Survival of Colorectal Cancer Patients
Background. Epidemiologic findings on the effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its treatment on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival have been inconsistent and have not been previously studied in an Arab population such as the Omani population. Patients and Methods. Data from the hospital records of 301 CRC patients treated in Sultan Qaboos University (SQUH), Oman, from 2006 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively to determine the effects of MetS and its treatment on CRC survival. Overall survival (OS) by MetS status and by medications for MetS components management was compared with Cox proportional models. Results. Of the 301 patients, 76 (25.2%) had MetS, 20.3% were on insulin, 23.9% were on metformin, 25.6% took statins, 17.9% were on either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Whereas metformin (HR, 0.46, 95% CI, 0.25-0.84) and statins (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35-0.96) had a protective effect on OS, insulin (HR 1.73, 95% CI, 1.02-2.97) had a detrimental effect. In subgroup analysis of diabetic subjects, a nonsignificant improvement in OS was observed in the metformin treated patients compared to those on other hypoglycemic agents (HR, 0.92, 95% CI, 0.55-1.55). Neither MetS nor antihypertensive drugs had any apparent effect on OS. Conclusions. Our result suggests that, among CRC patients with MetS, taking metformin and statins may improve overall survival, whereas being on insulin may negatively impact CRC prognosis. Further studies are warranted to determine the exact mechanism through which metformin, statins, and insulin exert their effects on CRC survival.
Stagnation in Decreasing Gastric Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Quito: Time Trend Analysis, 1985–2013
Background. Despite the significant global decline in mortality and incidence, gastric cancer (GC) remains a very common cause of illness and death in the Latin American region. This article seeks to describe, in depth, the time trend of incidence and mortality of GC in the city of Quito, from 1985 to 2013. Methods. Using data from the Quito Cancer Registry, annual sex-specific age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated. The analysis included all types of GC together, as well as by histological subtype. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to estimate the annual percentage change (EAPC). To evaluate cohort and period effects, Age-Period-Cohort (APC) modeling was performed. Results. Over time, incidence rate decreased from 30.4 to 18.8 cases in men and from 20.1 to 12.9 cases in women. The mortality rate decreased from 17.5 to 14.4 deaths in men and from 14.2 to 10.9 deaths in women. The incidence trend was composed of a first period (1986-1999) of strong decline (EAPC Men= -2.6, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.2, -0.9; EAPC Women= -3.2, 95% CI: -4.6, -1.9), followed by a less important decrease in men (EAPC= -0.8, 95% CI:-2.5, 0.9) and a slight increase in women (EAPC= 0.7, 95% CI: -1.4; 2.8). Mortality rates were constantly decreasing in both men (EAPC= -0.5, 95% CI: -0.9, -0.1) and women (EAPC= -0.9, 95% CI: -1.7, -0.1) throughout the period of analysis. Conclusions. The declines in incidence and mortality rates are stagnating. It is important to take measures to further reduce the high burden of GC.
Use of Mastectomy for Overdiagnosed Breast Cancer in the United States: Analysis of the SEER 9 Cancer Registries
Aim. We investigated use of mastectomy as treatment for early breast cancer in the US and applied the resulting information to estimate the minimum and maximum rates at which mastectomy could plausibly be undergone by patients with overdiagnosed breast cancer. Little is currently known about overtreatments undergone by overdiagnosed patients. Methods. In the US, screening is often recommended at ages ≥40. The study population was women age ≥40 diagnosed with breast cancer in the US SEER 9 cancer registries during 2013 (n=26,017). We evaluated first-course surgical treatments and their associations with case characteristics. Additionally, a model was developed to estimate probability of mastectomy conditional on observed case characteristics. The model was then applied to evaluate possible rates of mastectomy in overdiagnosed patients. To obtain minimum and maximum plausible rates of this overtreatment, we respectively assumed the cases that were least and most likely to be treated by mastectomy had been overdiagnosed. Results. Of women diagnosed with breast cancer at age ≥40 in 2013, 33.8% received mastectomy. Mastectomy was common for most investigated breast cancer types, including for the early breast cancers among which overdiagnosis is thought to be most widespread: mastectomy was undergone in 26.4% of in situ and 28.0% of AJCC stage-I cases. These rates are substantively higher than in many European nations. The probability-based model indicated that between >0% and <18% of the study population could plausibly have undergone mastectomy for overdiagnosed cancer. This range reduced depending on the overdiagnosis rate, shrinking to >0% and <7% if 10% of breast cancers were overdiagnosed and >3% and <15% if 30% were overdiagnosed. Conclusions. Screening-associated overtreatment by mastectomy is considerably less common than overdiagnosis itself but should not be assumed to be negligible. Screening can prompt or prevent mastectomy, and the balance of this harm-benefit tradeoff is currently unclear.