Kidney Cancer Incidence and Mortality Disparities Involving American Indians/Alaska Natives: An Analysis of the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry (OCCR)Read the full article
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology publishes studies related to population-based research on cancer etiology, prevention, surveillance, and survivorship and in the areas of descriptive, analytical, and molecular epidemiology etc.
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Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Cancer Patients Who Are under Chemotherapy at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital Oncology Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. In developing countries, environmental and personal hygiene is playing a great role in the increasing of intestinal helminth infection. In countries with limited resources and poor hygiene practices, there is a substantial overlap of intestinal helminthic and chronic infections like HIV, TB, and cancer. Intestinal helminths like Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm cause malnutrition and induce a type-2 immune response that could worsen the severity and clinical outcomes of patients with cancer. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths among cancer patients who are under chemotherapy. Methodology. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in volunteer cancer patients. Clinical information were collected from study participants using a structured questioner. Stool sample was collected for parasitological examination. Formol-ether concentration technique was done, and then, two microscopic slides were prepared. Examination was done by two laboratory technicians for the detection of helminths. SPSS version 22 was used for data analysis, and simple descriptive statistical analysis was done for data presentation. Result. The total study participants were 41, of these 31 (75.6%) were females and 10 (24.4%) were male. Breast cancer and colonic cancer were the highest proportion with the others, 43.9% and 17.1%, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites were 7/41 (17%). Hookworm 3/41(7.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides 3/41(7.3%), and Hymenolepis nana 1/41(2.4%) are the isolated parasite. Conclusions and Recommendations. The prevalence of intestinal helminths in cancer is lower than HIV and DM in the study area. However, the prevalence in these cancer patients is still high and needs deworming and health education for the better management of these cancer patients.
A 10-Year Scientometrics Analysis of Brain Tumors Treated with Gamma Knife Radiosurgery: Visualization, Characteristics, and Scientific Trends
Objective. To evaluate the scientometrics characteristics of the scientific production on the treatment of brain tumors with gamma knife radiosurgery in Scopus. Methods. The Scopus database (Elsevier) was used to collect all relevant studies for this bibliometric analysis. Data was obtained as a .csv file; it was downloaded from Scopus and was exported by SciVal to Microsoft Excel for a presentation using tables for more detailed analysis. The citations and the number of papers for the most productive institutions, authors, countries, and journals publishing scientific papers were analyzed on the use of gamma knife radiosurgery for brain tumors. Results. 458 metadata were obtained from scientific publications, on which inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, leaving 248 studies. The maximum peak of publications was 2018 with 31 publications, and the minimum peak was 2015 with 18. The most related subtopics were neurology, surgery, and oncology, and most of the retrieved papers had only institutional collaboration. As for more productive journals, Journal of Neurosurgery is first with 23 publications; within the countries with the most scientific publications, we have the United States, Japan, and China. With the United States being the country with the highest number of productions, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center was the main university with the highest scientific production and Sheehan and Trifiletti and American authors dominate the list with the highest number of documents. Conclusion. Scientific production regarding gamma knife surgery and brain tumors has been increasing during the last 10 years, with a high incidence during 2018, and the highest number of published articles was in the first quartile. Likewise, the United States is the country with the most publications, authors, and universities on the subject. Greater efforts are still lacking from all countries in the world to reach the quantity and quality of production of the United States.
Clinical presentation and outcomes in children with retinoblastoma managed at the Uganda Cancer Institute
Background. The majority of patients with retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer of childhood, are found in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), with leukocoria being the most common initial presenting sign and indication for referral. Findings from the current study serve to augment earlier findings on the clinical presentation and outcomes of children with retinoblastoma in Uganda. Methods. This was a retrospective study in which we reviewed records of children admitted with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma at the Uganda Cancer Institute from January 2009 to February 2020. From the electronic database, using admission numbers, files were retrieved. Patient information was recorded in a data extraction tool. Results. A total of 90 retinoblastoma patients were studied, with a mean age at the first Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) presentation of 36.7 months. There were more males (57.8%) than females, with a male to female ratio of 1.37 : 1. The majority (54.4%) had retinoblastoma treatment prior to UCI admission. The most common presenting symptoms were leukocoria (85.6%), eye reddening (64.4%), and eye swelling (63.3%). At 3 years of follow-up after index admission at UCI, 36.7% of the patients had died, 41.1% were alive, and 22.2% had been lost to follow-up. The median 3-year survival for children with retinoblastoma in our study was 2.18 years. Significant predictors of survival in the multivariate analysis were follow-up duration (), features of metastatic spread (), history of eye swelling (), and bilateral enucleation (). Conclusions. The majority of children who presented to the Uganda Cancer Institute were referred with advanced retinoblastoma, and there was a high mortality rate. Retinoblastoma management requires a multidisciplinary team that should include paediatric ophthalmologists, paediatric oncologists, ocular oncologists, radiation oncologists, and nurses.
Incidence Trends of Cancer in Morocco: The Tale of the Oncological Center of Marrakech (Morocco) over 8 Years
Background. Determining cancer incidence and mortality is a key factor in the implementation of health policies and cancer prevention strategies. This report aims to describe the trends of cancer incidence in a single referral oncology department from the Marrakech region (Morocco). Material and Methods. All new cancer cases of years registered at the Medical Oncology department of Mohammed VI University Hospital of Marrakesh between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2019, were included. Central nervous system (CNS) cancers, tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, and thyroid cancers for which chemotherapy was not indicated or was managed in other cancer-specialized departments were excluded from the analysis. Manual data collection from printed archived medical records of the study population was performed. Descriptive statistics were analyzed using R software and Joinpoint Regression Program. Results. A total of 15648 new cancer cases were analyzed. Missing data () accounted for 11.64%, and 4.1% () were excluded. The final statistical analysis and registration included 13174 cases. The median age at diagnosis is 54 years for females and 61 years for males. Female patients outnumbered males with a ratio of 1.58 among all age groups except those aged ≥75 y. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) for all sites was 68,0 per 100.000 person-years, which has increased with an annual percent change (APC) of 10.61%. The five most common malignancies among males are lung, stomach, prostate, colic, and rectal cancers. Among females, the five most frequent cancers are breast, cervix, ovary, colon, and stomach. Conclusion. The higher incidence observed in our results translates into a growing burden on the center and is expected to impact our ability to deliver cancer care. Epidemiological studies to identify risk factors and effective efforts are needed to further invest in cancer control and prevention plans.
Impact of the Management and Proportion of Lost to Follow-Up Cases on Cancer Survival Estimates for Small Population-Based Cancer Registries
Background. Estimation of survival requires follow-up of patients from diagnosis until death ensuring complete and good quality data. Many population-based cancer registries in low- and middle-income countries have difficulties linking registry data with regional or national vital statistics, increasing the chances of cases lost to follow-up. The impact of lost to follow-up cases on survival estimates from small population-based cancer registries (<500 cases) has been understudied, and bias could be larger than in larger registries. Methods. We simulated scenarios based on idealized real data from three population-based cancer registries to assess the impact of loss to follow-up on 1-5-year overall and net survival for stomach, colon, and thyroid cancers—cancer types with very different prognosis. Multiple scenarios with varying of lost to follow-up proportions (1-20%) and sample sizes of (100-500 cases) were carried out. We investigated the impact of excluding versus censoring lost to follow-up cases; punctual and bootstrap confidence intervals for the average bias are presented. Results. Censoring of lost to follow-up cases lead to overestimation of the overall survival, this effect was strongest for cancers with a poor prognosis and increased with follow-up time and higher proportion of lost to follow-up cases; these effects were slightly larger for net survival than overall survival. Excluding cases lost to follow-up did not generate a bias on survival estimates on average, but in individual cases, there were under- and overestimating survival. For gastric, colon, and thyroid cancer, relative bias on 5-year cancer survival with 1% of lost to follow-up varied between 6% and 125%, 2% and 40%, and 0.1% and 1.0%, respectively. Conclusion. Estimation of cancer survival from small population-based registries must be interpreted with caution: even small proportions of censoring, or excluding lost to follow-up cases can inflate survival, making it hard to interpret comparison across regions or countries.
Association of Common Medications and the Risk of Early-Onset Gastric Cancer: A Population-Based Matched Study
Background. Early-onset gastric cancer (EOGC, years at diagnosis) now comprises >30% of new gastric cancers in the United States. It is hypothesized that chronic acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) may promote tumorigenesis, while other medications including statins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), metformin, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors have been proposed as protective. We aimed to assess for an association between use of the aforementioned commonly prescribed medications and EOGC development. Methods. We used a population-based medical record linkage system, to identify cases of EOGC in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2020. Patients were matched 1 : 1 with controls based on age at diagnosis, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Conditional logistic regression was used to examine associations with the odds of EOGC development. Results. Ninety-six cases of EOGC were identified during the study period. On both univariate and multivariate regression analysis, there was no significant association between use of PPIs, statins, NSAIDs, or metformin and EOGC development. In a final multivariable model, there was a significant reduction in odds of EOGC with COX-2 inhibitor use for six months or more prior to cancer diagnosis (, 95% CI 0.16-0.94). Conclusion. In this retrospective, population-based study of individuals in Olmsted County, MN, we found significantly reduced odds of EOGC development associated with COX-2 inhibitor use for six months or more prior to diagnosis, but no association between EOGC development and use of PPIs and other commonly prescribed medications.