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Journal of Cancer Epidemiology publishes studies related to population-based research on cancer etiology, prevention, surveillance, and survivorship and in the areas of descriptive, analytical, and molecular epidemiology etc.
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Knowledge, Awareness, and Practices toward Colorectal Cancer and Its Dietary and Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors among Jordanian University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence is rising, and it is a leading cause of mortality, with greater death rates pronounced in developing countries, including Jordan. Understanding knowledge and awareness of etiologic factors, unhealthy lifestyles, and dietary patterns is crucial for combating ailments. Hence, this study is aimed at investigating the level of knowledge and awareness of CRC-related risk factors, practices, and possible associations of studied variables among young Jordanians. Methodology. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using an online self-reported assessment of anthropometrics, knowledge, awareness, and dietary and lifestyle practices toward CRC and its related risk factors. Results. A study of 795 Jordanian university students found that 93.8% were Jordanians, 73.0% were female, aged 18-24, and single. Most participants were from medical and science schools (69.4%). The vast majority (about 84%) were found to have good knowledge and awareness of CRC and its risk factors, but this was not reflected in their dietary practices. There are significant differences in physical activity, smoking, vegetable consumption, and serving sizes of red meat and processed meats between the sexes. Academic study specialties significantly impact knowledge and awareness. Conclusion. The study reveals that while young Jordanian university students have good knowledge and awareness about CRC and its risk factors, these levels are not reflected in their dietary behaviors and food choices for CRC prevention, highlighting the need for national programs to improve these practices, particularly in the younger population.
Epidemiological Profile of Salivary Gland Tumors in Southern Iranian Population: A Retrospective Study of 405 Cases
Aims. Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are a rare and diverse group of tumors that account for 3 to 10% of all head and neck malignancies. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive epidemiological analysis of SGTs in the south of Iran and compare the findings with previous reports from Iran and other parts of the world. Methods. Using a retrospective study, 405 patients diagnosed with SGTs were observed over an eight-year period between April 2013 and October 2021 in Shiraz, Iran. Patients’ demographic and clinicopathological features were obtained from patients’ records. Quantitative and descriptive data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results. There were 302 benign (74.5%) and 103 (25.4%) malignant SGTs. Pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin’s tumors were the most common benign SGTs (70.5% and 21.5%, respectively). The most common malignant SGTs were mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (26.2% and 22.3%, respectively). There was a statistically significant association between tumor origin and its malignancy status (). In addition, the results indicated that benign tumors were most commonly detected in the parotid gland (). The benign tumors were more frequently observed among the younger population (). Conclusion. In summary, the findings of the current study were mainly consistent with the previous reports from Iran and the rest of the world. Benign tumors were the most prevalent type of SGTs, and the parotid gland was the most common site. While the majority of cases that developed from the major salivary glands were benign, all the minor SGTs were malignant. Older patients were more likely to develop malignant tumors compared to younger ones. This study provides insights into the prevalence, age-related incidence, gender distribution, and geographic variation of salivary gland tumors. This can be instrumental to develop a guideline for screening, diagnosis, and determining an optimal treatment.
Awareness of Cervical Cancer, Risk Perception, and Practice of Pap Smear Test among Young Adult Women of Dhulikhel Municipality, Nepal
Background. Despite being one of the most preventable forms of cancer, cervical cancer remains an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. However, there is limited evidence regarding awareness and practice of screening for cervical cancer among women in resource-poor settings like Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing the awareness of cervical cancer, risk perception, and practice of Pap smear tests among adult women of Dhulikhel municipality of Kavreplanchowk district in Nepal. Methodology. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 women (aged 18-45 years) residing across the Dhulikhel municipality of Nepal. Systematic random sampling method with face-to-face interviews was conducted to collect data. A descriptive analysis was performed to assess the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. The chi-square test was used to determine the factors associated with risk perception and participants’ demographic characteristics. Results. The mean age (±SD) of the participants was years. This study found that around 55% and 38% of women had heard about cervical cancer and Pap smear test, respectively. Of those who had heard of the Pap test, only 37.6% had ever practiced the test. Similarly, 33.2% and 12.1% knew about the correct age group and time interval to perform the Pap test, respectively. Among those who had heard about cervical cancer, nearly 57% had positive perceptions toward cervical cancer. In addition, risk perception of cervical cancer was found to be associated with participant age, family type, and marital status. Conclusion. The women had inadequate knowledge and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear test. This study concluded the need for a context-specific and effective health awareness program to promote preventive measures for cervical cancer and enhance the practice of Pap smear test in the community.
A Retrospective Observational Study on Disease Characteristics and Treatment Patterns of Giant Cell Tumor of the Bone in China
Aims. Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB) is associated with considerable morbidity. As GCTB epidemiological data for China are limited, this study is aimed at describing the disease characteristics of GCTB in China and establishing the historical context for its treatment before recent advances in treatment options. Methods. The disease characteristics, treatment patterns, and local GCTB recurrence rate after primary surgery for GCTB were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective, noninterventional, observational study of patients treated for GCTB at Ji Shui Tan Hospital, Beijing, from 2009 to 2016 based on medical chart review. Patients with unmet need were defined as those whose surgical treatment was difficult or who had to undergo high-morbidity surgery. Results. Among the 668 patients with a primary GCTB diagnosis, 578 (86.5%) of target lesions were in the extremities, and 89 (13.3%) were in the pelvic or axial bone. Of these, 173 (25.9%) were characterized as having an unmet need. Almost all GCTB patients received surgical treatment at both primary diagnosis (666/668 (99.7%)) and last disease recurrence (196/200 (98.0%)). Additionally, about one-third of patients received nonsurgical treatment at primary diagnosis (205/668 (30.7%)) and disease recurrence (67/200 (33.5%)), with neoadjuvant therapy being the most common treatment. The rate of high-morbidity surgery increased for recurrent disease (65/200 (32.5%)) compared with primary diagnosis (111/668 (16.6%)). The 2-year cumulative incidence of postoperative disease recurrence was 29.2%, in line with rates observed in prior studies. Conclusion. As many patients with primary and recurrent disease received high-morbidity surgery, more effective treatments are needed.
Survival Outcomes and Care Equity among Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer in Auckland, New Zealand
Aim. The Auckland Advanced Breast Cancer Review (AABC) was a review of patients diagnosed with advanced inoperable/metastatic breast cancer (ABC) within the Auckland region of New Zealand, commissioned in response to a Breast Cancer Registry report (BCFNZR) that showed poor and inequitable survival outcomes. The review was aimed at assessing equity of care and identifying healthcare delivery gaps for patients with ABC in the Auckland region. Method. In this retrospective study, patients living within the Auckland region, diagnosed with ABC between the 1st January 2013 to the 31st December 2015 were identified from the Breast Cancer Registry. Data censorship date was 30th January 2019 to allow a minimum of 3 years of follow-up. Demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and survival data were extracted from electronic records for statistical analysis. Results. Of the 388 patients that met inclusion criteria for this study, median overall survival (medOS) was 18.9 months in the total population, with no difference between patients with de novo metastatic disease (dnMBC -18.9 m) and recurrent metastatic disease (rMBC -18.7 m). No statistically significant differences in medOS was found amongst Maori (16.2 m), Pacific People (17.3 m), and NZ European (18.9 m) or when patients were stratified according domicile district health board. Median number of lines of systemic treatment was two, with similar treatment exposure between ethnic groups. Conclusion. While treatment uptake and survival outcomes were generally comparable across ethnicity and district health boards, dnMBC survival outcomes were considerably poorer than expected, earmarking this subset of patients with ABC for more in-depth research.
Epidemiology of Adult T-Cell Leukaemia/Lymphoma in South Africa over a 10-Year Period
Introduction. Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a rare and aggressive malignancy of mature T-cells. Limited epidemiological studies have shown that there is substantial variation in age at diagnosis and subtype distribution between different geographical regions. This is the first epidemiological study of ATLL in South Africa. Methods. A national epidemiological study of ATLL in South Africa was performed. All new cases of ATLL from 2009 to 2019 were identified by laboratory database search in public and private health care sectors. Demographic and diagnostic data were obtained, and the cases were subtyped according to the Shimoyama classification. Results. There were 31 patients with ATLL over the 10-year period, with an incidence of 0.06 per 100000 population. The male to female ratio was 1 : 1 and the median age at diagnosis was 37 years. Acute ATLL was the most commonly seen subtype in South Africa. Conclusion. In this, the first epidemiological study of ATLL in South Africa, we demonstrate that ATLL is a rare disease, that acute ATLL is the most commonly diagnosed subtype, and that ATLL is likely under diagnosed. Patients present at a considerably younger age than the reported age in other nations.