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Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
Volume 2012, Article ID 291704, 13 pages
Research Article

Comorbidities and Concomitant Medication Use in Men with Prostate Cancer or High Levels of PSA Compared to Matched Controls: A GPRD Analysis

1Quantitative Sciences Division, Worldwide Epidemiology, Research and Development, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
2Quantitative Sciences Division, Worldwide Epidemiology, Research and Development, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
3WREN Group, EPIPharmaCo Ltd., Buxton, UK

Received 4 November 2011; Revised 2 February 2012; Accepted 2 February 2012

Academic Editor: Emanuela Taioli

Copyright © 2012 Haojie Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Comorbidity influences screening practice, treatment choice, quality of life, and survival. The presence of comorbidities and medication use could place patients at greater risks of adverse effects from certain interventions. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in the General Practice Research Database to better understand comorbidities and medication use in men with or at risk of prostate cancer (CaP). Compared with men with similar age but no CaP, CaP patients had higher incidence of urinary tract infection, impotence and breast disorder, and 2.6-fold higher all-cause mortality. Among men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) but no CaP, the mortality rates were slightly lower, and fewer differences in comorbidities and medication use were noted compared to men without elevated PSA. Many prevalent comorbidities and medications were consistent across groups and are typical of an older male population. These real-world data are broadly applicable throughout the drug development cycle and subsequent patient management.