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Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 957467, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/957467
Research Article

Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Program of Cancer Detection, Prevention and Control, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
2Department of Biology and Cancer Research Program, JLC-Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707, USA
3Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care and Department of Hematology/Oncology, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
4Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
5Department of Surgery, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA
6Department of Community and Family Medicine and Program of Cancer Detection, Prevention and Control, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
7Duke Prostate Center, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
8Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy and Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27708, USA
9Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
10Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 104006, Durham, NC 27710, USA

Received 24 April 2012; Revised 17 June 2012; Accepted 21 June 2012

Academic Editor: T. L. Vaughan

Copyright © 2012 Adriana C. Vidal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases) who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.1–3.9) The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32– 5.73). The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR = 6 . 7 ; 95%CI = 1.6–27.8), compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR = 0 . 9 ; 95%CI = 0.24–3.92) (p-interaction = 0 . 0 4 5 ). There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6) and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings.