Journal of Cancer Epidemiology / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Smokeless Tobacco and Oral Cancer in South Asia: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

Table 2

Epidemiological studies of chewing tobacco and oral cancer.

Authors OR (95% CI) Men
OR (95% CI)
Women
OR (95% CI)
Frequency/day**Duration of use in years***
Tobacco ≤ 5 OR (95% CI)Tobacco 6–10 OR (95% CI)Tobacco
> 10/OR (95% CI)
Tobacco ≤ 10 yrs/OR (95% CI)Tobacco 11–20  yrs/OR (95% CI)Tobacco > 20 yrs/OR (95% CI)

Goud et al. [32]8.5 (4.3–16.5)n/an/a8.2 (3.0–22.3)4.7 (2.0–10.7)18.4*n/a4.2*10.2*
Nandakumar et al. [33]12.9 (7.5–22.3)3.6 (1.7–7.9)25.3 (11.2–57.3)9.3 (4.9–17.5)12.8 (6.6–25.0)16.6 (6.3–44.3)n/an/an/a
Rao et al. [34]3.6 (2.5–5.6)3.6 (2.5–5.6)n/an/a2.8 (2.2–3.5)+3.8*1.2 (0.9–1.8)3.9 (2.7–5.7)4.1*
Khan et al. [35]2.3 (0.7–7.4)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Wasnik et al. [36]7.9 (4.1–13.5)n/an/a2.1*8.1 (3.7–17.9)20.0 (8.1–48.9)n/an/a10.9 (5.9–20.0)
Dikshit and kanhere [37]5.8 (3.6–9.5)5.8 (3.6–9.5)n/a2.0 (1.0–3.8)6.7 (3.7–12.1)13.9 (7.1–27.2)n/an/an/a
Znaor et al. [40]5.0 (4.2–5.9)5.0 (4.2–5.9)n/a5.0*11.9 (8.9–15.9)++n/an/a3.1 (2.5–3.8)+++9.5*
Gangane et al. [42]10.0 (6.7–14.8)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Subapriya et al. [41]2.9*n/an/an/an/an/a2.9*2.5*2.7*
Basu et al. [43]2.0 (0.9–4.4)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Jayalekshmi et al. [45]5.5 (3.3–9.0)n/a5.5 (3.3–9.0)3.3 (1.7–6.4)7.8 (4.4–13.9)9.2 (4.5–18.7)n/an/an/a
Jayalekshmi et al. [46]5.4 (3.0–9.0)5.4 (3.0–9.0)n/a1.9 (1.2–2.8)n/an/an/an/an/a
Pednekar et al. [47]1.4 (1.0–2.1)****1.4 (1.0–2.1)n/a1.1 (0.9–1.4)1.1 (0.9–1.4)n/a0.8 (0.4–1.7)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.1 (1–1.4)
Madani et al. [48]8.3 (5.4–13.0)n/an/an/an/an/an/an/an/a
Ray et al. [49]3.9 (2.4–6.1)2.8 (1.5–5.1)6.4 (3.2–12.7)n/an/an/an/an/an/a

OR: odds ratio, CI: confidence interval, *95% CI not reported and/or could not be calculated, **daily frequency in number of times tobacco is chewed in a day, ***total duration of habit in “years,” ****for cancer of lip, oral cavity, and pharynx only, n/a: not available, +1–10/day, ++>5/day, +++0–19 years, and nonchewers taken as reference category. Frequency/intensity OR are for both genders.