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Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 643020, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/643020
Review Article

Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

1Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3Center of Excellent for Biodiversity, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
4Department of Medicine, The University of Kansas Medical School, Molecular Medicine Laboratory, KUMC, Kansas City, KS, USA

Received 13 September 2014; Revised 5 December 2014; Accepted 15 December 2014

Academic Editor: Lidia Larizza

Copyright © 2015 Roya Dolatkhah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs.