Table 3: Determinants of testing for prostate cancer using hierarchical logistic regression.

VariableModel ()Model ()Model ()Model ()
OR (SE)OR (SE)OR (SE)OR (SE)

Health insurance (ref: no)1.001.001.001.00
 Yes1.91 (0.171)1.73 (0.156)1.64 (0.157)1.81 (0.417)
 Risk factors
Cholesterol level (ref: no)1.001.001.001.00
 Yes3.85 (0.489)3.37 (0.433)3.02 (0.412)2.90 (0.384)
Do you smoke (ref: no)1.001.001.001.00
 Yes 0.49 (0.064)0.54 (0.071)0.52 (0.072)0.52 (0.071)
Access to information
 Received information on cancer prevention (ref: no)1.001.001.00
  Yes 1.22 (0.106)1.05 (0.097)1.05 (0.094)
 Education (ref: none)1.001.001.00
  Primary1.48 (0.282)1.67 (0.336)1.67 (0.330)
  Secondary1.75 (0.364)1.88 (0.418)1.87 (0.411)
  Tertiary and higher3.68 (0.832)3.12 (0.764)3.02 (0.727)
 Listen to radio (ref: none)1.001.001.00
  Often1.07 (0.234)1.11 (0.256)1.13 (0.256)
  Very often1.05 (0.197)1.02 (0.203)1.02 (0.199)
 Watch television (ref: none)1.001.001.00
  Often1.14 (0.296)1.11 (0.302)1.088 (0.287)
  Very often1.21 (0.275)1.12 (0.267)1.113 (0.257)
 Read newspapers (ref: none)1.001.001.00
  Often1.19 (0.145)1.17 (0.149)1.17 (0.148)
  Very often1.37 (0.147)1.39 (0.162)1.38 (0.158)
Demographic factors
 Age categories (40–44)1.001.00
  45–491.91 (0.238)1.92 (0.233)
  50–543.27 (0.425)3.26 (0.412)
  55 and over5.49 (0.750)5.43 (0.719)
 Marital status (ref: never married)1.001.00
  Married3.08 (0.804)3.01 (0.772)
  Separated2.36 (0.644)2.32 (0.625)
 Religion (ref: Catholic)1.001.00
  Other Christians1.06 (0.135)1.06 (0.131)
  No religion0.87 (0.095)0.87 (0.093)
 Place of residence (ref: urban)1.001.00
  Rural1.13 (0.123)Na
 Region of residence (ref: 0)
  I1.46 (0.284)1.46 (0.265)
  II1.83 (0.345)1.80 (0.317)
  III1.68 (0.327)1.68 (0.305)
  IV1.07 (0.232)1.09 (0.223)
  V1.36 (0.267)1.36 (0.249)
  VI1.59 (0.318)1.58 (0.294)
  VII1.85 (0.360)1.84 (0.335)
  VIII1.32 (0.256)1.33 (0.241)
Socioeconomic factors
 Wealth (ref: poorest)1.00
  Poorer1.12 (0.164)n/a
  Middle1.55 (0.227)n/a
  Richer2.34 (0.356)n/a
  Richest3.20 (0.544)n/a
 Interaction effects
Insurance coverage and wealth (ref: uninsured and poorest)
 Uninsured and poorer1.329 (0.322)
 Uninsured and middle1.73 (0.412)
 Uninsured and richer2.48 (0.593)
 Uninsured and richest3.46 (0.907)
 Insured and poorer1.04 (0.181)
 Insured and middle1.47 (0.255)
 Insured and richer2.27 (0.406)
 Insured and richest3.04 (0.591)
 Uninsured and urban
  Uninsured and rural1.13 (0.189)
  Insured and rural1.158 (0.143)
Random effects1.65 (0.126)1.50 (0.128)1.38 (0.150)1.39 (0.147)
Constant0.26 (0.021)0.09 (0.029)0.01 (0.003)0.01 (0.003)
Observations3,2723,2723,2723,272

Standard errors in parentheses , .
OR refers to odds ratios and SE refers to standard errors.
Variables included in these models: model 1 = health insurance and risk factors (health insurance, told of cholesterol level, and ever smoke cigarettes), model 2 = model 1 + access to information (received information on cancer prevention, education, listen to radio, watch television, and literacy), model 3 = model 2 + demographic factors (age category, marital status, religion, region and place of residence, and wealth), model 4 = model 3 + interaction effects.