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E-Journal of Chemistry
Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 173-179

Spectrophotometric Determination of Zidovudine in Pharmaceuticals Based on Charge-Transfer Complexation Involving N-Bromosuccinimide, Metol and Sulphanilic Acid as Reagents

K. Basavaiah and U. R. Anil Kumar

Department of Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570 006, India

Received 29 June 2006; Accepted 2 November 2006

Copyright © 2007 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A simple spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of zidovudine(ZDV) in bulk drug and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on the oxidation of ZDV by a known excess of oxidant N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), in buffer medium of pH 1.5, followed by the estimation of unreacted amount of oxidant with metol and sulphanilic acid. The reacted oxidant corresponds to the amount ZDV. The purple-red reaction product absorbs maximally at 530 nm and Beer’s law is obeyed over a range 5 to 75 μg mL-1. The apparent molar absorptivity is calculated to be 5.1×103 L mol-1cm-1, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity value is 0.052 μg cm-2. The limit of detection and quantification are found to be 0.90 and 2.72, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the developed methods were evaluated as per the current ICH guidelines. The method was successfully applied to the assay of ZDV in tablet/capsule preparations and the results were statistically compared with those of the reference method by applying the Student’s t-test and F-test. No interference was observed from the common tablet/capsule excipients. The accuracy of the method was further ascertained by performing recovery studies via standard-addition method.