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Journal of Chemistry publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry, including biological, environmental, forensic, inorganic, organic, physical and theoretical.
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Anthelminthic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities and FTIR Analyses of Vernonia camporum Stem-Bark
Vernonia camporum is used ethnomedicinally to treat diseases such as malaria, fever, hypertension, mouth sores, pains, inflammation, and skin rashes in Africa. This study aims at investigating the biological activities (anthelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial) and separating some of the biologically active components in the methanol crude extract of the stem-bark of Vernonia camporum. Phytochemical screening, anthelminthic (Lumbricus terrestris (earthworm)), anti-inflammatory (egg albumin denaturation), antioxidant (DPPH and H2O2 scavenging and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), and antimicrobial (agar and broth dilution method) assays were performed on the extracts. Column chromatography and FTIR spectroscopic analysis were employed to separate and analyze the least polar constituents of the methanol extract. The preliminary phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenols, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, phytosterols, proteins and amino acids, phlobatannins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, and anthocyanins. The extracts (methanol and hexane) showed a higher concentration-dependent anthelminthic activity. The extracts exhibited high concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 values of 35.83 ± 3.984 and 53.91 ± 5.8413 µg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values for methanol and hexane extracts in the DPPH assay were 17.70 ± 3.430 and 29.54 ± 1.5437 µg/mL, and those of the H2O2 assay were 243.20 ± 0.1528 and 352.20 ± 12.64 µg/mL, respectively. TAC results for methanol and hexane extracts were recorded as 31.592 ± 1.682 and 30.232 ± 0.445 gAAE/100 g, respectively. The extracts were observed to exhibit antimicrobial activity against test organisms with MICs ranging from 0.1953 to 25.00 mg/mL. Chromatographic separations gave four fractions. FTIR analysis indicated the presence of various functional groups in purified fractions of the methanol extract that confirms the presence of the phytochemicals identified in the screening test. The results indicate that both extracts of V. camporum possess anthelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities supporting the traditional usage of this plant.
COVID-19 and Cancer Therapy: Interrelationships and Management of Cancer Cases in the Era of COVID-19
The COVID-19 global epidemic poses this generation’s biggest worldwide public health challenge probably since the 1918 influenza epidemic. Recent reports on two new variants have triggered a dramatic upsurge in research to understand the pandemic, primarily focussing on the virology, triggers, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic tests including the prevention and management of the novel coronavirus. Whilst such studies are important in managing the present medical emergency, there is a need for further work to include interdependencies between the epidemic and other illnesses. This will help in developing effective approaches to treat and manage associated diseases in both the short and the long term. In this regard, people living with cancer are a subgroup that is highly vulnerable to respiratory infections and acute pneumonitis similar to the one caused by the COVID-19 virus. This is because the state of their immunity is compromised due to malignancy and the adverse effects of anticancer treatments. With annual cancer projections rising globally and an estimated 70 percent of all cancer-related deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries, the patient population with impaired immune systems that could be adversely impacted by COVID-19 is only anticipated to rise. In this review, we delve into the challenges and health risks facing cancer patients and cancer treatment in the COVID-19 context, with suggestions into viable measures which can be taken to minimize exposure to the risk of contracting COVID-19 for this vulnerable subgroup. New mutations and the prospects offered by vaccines development and how they relate to this class of patients are also discussed.
Synthesis, Radiolabeling, and Biological Evaluation of 68Ga-Mucin1 and Its Folate Hybrid Peptide Conjugates for the Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer
Because of our interest in developing new hybrid peptide radioconjugates with suitable biochemical properties for multiple-receptors targeting properties that are overexpressed on many human cancers especially ovarian cancer, we have synthesized 68Ga-NODAGA-MUC1 and 68Ga-NODAGA-MUC1-FA hybrid peptide conjugates using a straightforward and one-step simple reaction. Radiochemical yields were found to be higher than 95% (decay corrected), with a total synthesis time of less than 20 min. Radiochemical purities were always higher than 95% without HPLC purification. In vitro studies on KB cancer cells showed that substantial amounts of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions and held great affinities and specificities toward the KB cell line. In vivo characterization in normal female Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates with excretion predominantly by the urinary system. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts demonstrated significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for 68Ga-NODAGA-MUC1-FA hybrid peptide conjugate compared to the 68Ga-NODAGA-MUC1 peptide monomeric counterpart. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by the excess injection of hybrid peptide, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. These results demonstrate that 68Ga-NODAGA-MUC1-FA hybrid peptide conjugate may be useful as a molecular probe for early detection and staging of folate and MUC1 receptor-positive cancers such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response to treatment.
Facile One-Step Flame Synthesis of La1−xSrxMnO3 Nanoparticles for CO Catalytic Oxidation
A large amount of CO as hazardous emission in the iron ore sintering process has caused severe harm to the environment and human health. To control the emission of CO more effectively, the preparation of highly efficient catalysts has attracted much attention. In this study, the La1-xSrxMnO3 (0 ≤ x < 1) perovskite catalysts with different Sr2+ contents were prepared by the one-step flame synthesis method to treat CO pollutants in the iron and steel industry. The influence of Sr2+ doping on the structure and activity of catalytic were characterized and analyzed. La1-xSrxMnO3 perovskite catalysts exhibit good perovskite phases and loose spherical structures. The specific surface areas are between 4.1 and 12.0 m2 g−1. Combined with the results of H2-TPR and O2-TPD, the improvement of catalytic activity of La1-xSrxMnO3 perovskite can be attributed to the high concentration of active centers and oxygen vacancies. Significantly, the La0.4Sr0.6MnO3 catalyst presented the best reducibility and high content of absorbed active oxygen species, leading to a superior CO oxidation catalytic activity and reaches 50% CO conversion at 134.9°C and 90% at 163.2°C, respectively. The effects of water vapor and CO2 on the oxidation activity of La1-xSrxMnO3 perovskite was investigated. The flame-produced catalysts exhibit favorable catalytic stability and antisintering ability, achieving 100% CO conversion after fifth consecutive oxidation cycles.
Novel One-Pot Solvothermal Synthesis of High-Performance Copper Hexacyanoferrate for Cs+ Removal from Wastewater
Efficient removal of radioactive cesium from complex wastewater is a challenge. Unlike traditional precipitation and hydrothermal synthesis, a novel vast specific surface area adsorbent of copper hexacyanoferrates named EA-CuHCF was synthesized using a one-pot solvothermal method under the moderate ethanol media characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, BET, and FTIR. It was found that the maximum adsorption capacity towards Cs+ was 452.5 mg/g, which is far higher than most of the reported Prussian blue analogues so far. Moreover, EA-CuHCF could effectively adsorb Cs+ at a wide pH range and low concentration of Cs+ in geothermal water within 30 minutes, and the removal rate of Cs+ was 92.1%. Finally, the separation factors between Cs+ and other competitive ions were higher than 553, and the distribution coefficient of Cs+ reached up to 2.343 × 104 mL/g. These properties suggest that EA-CuHCF synthesized by the solvothermal method has high capacity and selectivity and can be used as a candidate for Cs+ removal from wastewater.
Snail Shells Adsorbent for Copper Removal from Aqueous Solutions and the Production of Valuable Compounds
This research explored the efficiency of snail shells powder (SSP) for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions and the production of valuable compounds from the residual product. To confirm its chemical and mineral components, the material was characterized by different instrumental techniques. The effects of experimental parameters such as the pH of the solution, the effect of SSP dose, particle size, and initial concentration of Cu(II) on the removal process were studied. The removal of Cu(II) was reasonably fast to be completed within a time frame of 90 min. The kinetics following the pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.979) were better compared to the pseudo-first-order model (R2 = 0.896). The increase in pH values leads to an increase in the amount of Cu(II) adsorbed. Afterward, the adsorption capacity reaches stability at pH near 7. The maximum Cu(II) removal occurred with a mass of 8 g·L−1 and a particle size of 300 μm. This particle size presents approximately 44.5% of SSP particles, which is the largest proportion of the sample as shown by particle size analysis. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The thermodynamic parameters values showed that the Cu(II) adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Furthermore, with the presence of CaCO3, the precipitation of Cu(II) in the form of posnjakite occurred with a high Cu(II) removal rate close to 99%. The residual SSP was used for the production of valuable compounds through the thermal decomposition process at various temperatures.