Practical Synthesis and Field Application of the Synthetic Sex Pheromone of Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)Read the full article
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Lithium Sulfide as Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advances and Challenges
Due to the ever-growing demand for high-density energy storage devices, lithium-ion batteries with a high-capacity cathode and anode are thought to be the next-generation batteries for their high energy density. Lithium sulfide (Li2S) is considered the promising cathode material for its high theoretical capacity, high melting point, affordable volume expansion, and lithium composition. This review summarizes the activation and lithium storage mechanism of Li2S cathodes. The design strategies in improving the electrochemical performance are highlighted. The application of the Li2S cathode in full cells of lithium-ion batteries is discussed. The challenges and new directions in commercial applications of Li2S cathodes are also pointed out.
Synthesis of Guerbet Amine-Oxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery
Guerbet amine-oxide was synthesized by using Guerbet acid, N,N′-diethyl-1,3-propanediamine and hydrogen peroxide. Its structure was confirmed by FT-IR spectra and mass spectra. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the interfacial tension between the crude oil and water were measured. The results showed that the CMC of the Guerbet amine-oxide is 2.14 × 10−5 mol/L and the interfacial tension could be lowered to ultralow levels. The core flood test showed that the surfactant and polymer binary system could increase oil recovery by 24.7% above the water flood.
Carboxymethylated Sulfated Heteroexopolysaccharide from a Haloarchaeal Strain as Potential Biomolecule for Harmless Adjuvant Therapy in Cancer Treatment
This study explored the possible use of a microbial carboxymethylated sulfated heteroexopolysaccharide (CS-hEPS) as a potential anticancer agent. The investigation was carried out through antioxidant, antifatigue, and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant potential including scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical activities and reducing power was evaluated. Antifatigue activity was determined by assessing the endurance of mice using the forced swimming test. Following 30 days of CS-hEPS oral treatment at different doses, biochemical parameters related to fatigue such as lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), serum urea nitrogen (SUN), and hepatic glycogen (HG) contents were measured. Antitumor activities were investigated against human cancer liver and myelogenous leukemia cells. Results showed that CS-hEPS possesses notable antioxidant, antifatigue, and antitumor effects. CS-hEPS significantly inhibited the proliferation of leukemia (86.6 ± 0.32%) and cancer liver (58.6 ± 0.43%) cells. CS-hEPS are promising natural antioxidant, antifatigue, and antitumor harmless adjuvant materials that could be applied in human cancer therapy.
Antimicrobial Characterization of Erythorbyl Laurate for Practical Applications in Food and Cosmetics
In this study, antimicrobial spectrum of erythorbyl laurate (EL) against bacteria and fungi, leading to food-borne and infectious skin diseases, was evaluated for its practical applications in food and cosmetics. Furthermore, the influences of environmental factors including pH, oxidative stress, and dispersion medium on antimicrobial activity of EL were investigated. The three Gram-positive bacteria and the three molds were susceptible to 3.0 mM EL, while the yeast was susceptible to 6.0 mM EL. It was demonstrated EL retained antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus after being oxidized while the antibacterial activity against the three Gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes was significantly enhanced as decrease of pH from 7.0 to 5.0. Moreover, EL exhibited bactericidal effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in an oil-in-water emulsion. Treatment of 5.0 mM EL for 4 h reduced 5.29 ± 0.24, 6.01 ± 0.18, 5.95 ± 0.13, and 6.24 ± 0.30 log CFU/mL against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, respectively. In a multipassage resistance selection study, it was observed minimum inhibitory concentrations of EL against S. aureus were not increased over 20 passages, indicating EL might not develop drug resistance of bacteria. This study suggests EL has a potential to be applied as the multifunctional additive in food and cosmetics.
Synthesis of Diazepam-Imprinted Polymers with Two Functional Monomers in Chloroform Using a Bulk Polymerization Method
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine that has the potency to be misused because it is effective, easily obtained, and inexpensive. The misuse of diazepam is to replace illegal drugs and be a sedative. Separation of diazepam is needed to detect possible drug abuse and to monitor drug levels in blood to ensure the effectiveness of the drug. This study was conducted to obtain a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MI-SPE) sorbent to separate diazepam from serum samples. This work started at the synthesis stage with the bulk polymerization method, using methyl methacrylate and acrylamide as functional monomers, diazepam as a template, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker. The polymer obtained was identified by its adsorption capacity and packaged into a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and the extraction conditions were optimized. The optimization results were then used to extract diazepam from the serum sample. The test results showed that the adsorption ability of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with the functional monomer, methyl methacrylate, was 63.98 ± 0.1%, which is higher than that of the acrylamide MIP monomer, with a value of 43.27 ± 0.1%. The MIP sorbent of methyl methacrylate was applied to the SPE with 200 mg of polymer in a 3 mL cartridge. Diazepam added to serum samples were then passed through the MIP-SPE producing a percent recovery value of 95.31 ± 1.1% for MIP and 60.83 ± 0.3% for nonimprinted polymer (NIP). The results showed that the MI-SPE sorbent made from the monomer methyl methacrylate gave higher extraction recovery results than acrylamide, and it could be used for extracting diazepam from serum samples with or without other substances.
Removal of Nutrients from Fertilizer Plant Wastewater Using Scenedesmus sp.: Formation of Bioflocculation and Enhancement of Removal Efficiency
Eutrophication of surface water has become an environmental concern in recent decades. High concentrations of nutrients, especially nitrogen- and phosphorus-rich species, have contributed to the process of eutrophication, highlighting a demand for effective and economical methods of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a green microalga species, Scenedesmus sp., to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), from fertilizer plant wastewater. Different microalgae concentrations from 10 mg/L to 60 mg/L were used to assess the growth rate, biomass production, and removal ability. The results indicated that Scenedesmus sp. grew well in the wastewater (with a growth rate from 0.3 to 0.38/day) and produced up to 70.2 mg/L of dry biomass. The algal species was able to remove ammonium (), nitrate (), phosphate (), total phosphorus (TP), COD, and BOD5 with removal rates up to 93%, 84%, 97%, 96%, 93%, and 84%, respectively. Autobioflocculation (AFL) was observed in all cultures with flocculation activity of up to 88.3% in the highest algal biomass treatment. The formation of bioflocculation enhanced the removal of nutrients, COD, and BOD5 from wastewater effluent. The results indicated that wastewater from a fertilizer plant could be used as a cost-effective growth medium for algal biomass. The autoflocculation of microalgae could be used as a more practical approach for wastewater treatment using microalgae to eliminate eutrophication.