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A Synthetic Pan-Aurora Kinase Inhibitor, 5-Methoxy-2-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one, Triggers Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Apoptosis in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells
Aurora kinases are Ser/Thr kinases that function as mitotic regulators. 5-Methoxy-2-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one (DK1913) is a synthetic pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor. However, the mode of action of DK1913 concerning the induction of apoptosis is unclear. Here, we report that DK1913 triggered apoptosis, as revealed by flow cytometry and Annexin V staining. DK1913 enhanced the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and genotoxic stress responses. We also found that DK1913 induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to the activation of caspase-9, caspase-7, and caspase-3. In addition, the antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), abrogated DK1913-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of the caspase cascade. These findings demonstrate that pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor DK1913 triggers apoptosis through ROS-mediated ER and genotoxic stress responses.
Theoretical Investigation on Structure-Property Relationship of Asymmetric Clusters (CH3FBN3)n (n = 1– 6)
The structural, relative stability, electronic, IR vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of asymmetric clusters (CH3FBN3)n (n = 1–6) are systematically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) method. Results show that clusters (CH3FBN3)n (n = 2–6) form a cyclic structure with a B atom and a Nα atom binding together. Five main characteristic regions are observed and assigned for the calculated IR spectra. The size-dependent second-order energy difference shows that clusters (CH3FBN3)3 and (CH3FBN3)5 have relatively higher stability and enhanced chemical inertness compared with the neighboring clusters. These two clusters may serve as the cluster-assembled materials. The variations of thermodynamic properties with temperature T or cluster size n are analyzed, respectively. Based on enthalpies in the range of 200–800 K, the formations of the most stable clusters (CH3FBN3)n (n = 2–6) from monomer are thermodynamically favorable. These data are helpful to design and synthesize other asymmetric boron azides.
Protective Effect of Coconut Oil Meal Phenolic Antioxidants against Macromolecular Damage: In Vitro and In Vivo Study
Coconut oil meal, a cheap by-product of coconut oil production, is a rich source of phenolic antioxidants. Many age-related diseases are caused by reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) induced damage to macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. In the present study, the protective effect of the phenolic extract of coconut oil meal (CMPE) against macromolecular oxidative damage was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo models. Sunflower oil, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and plasmid DNA were used in the in vitro study, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl, and nicked DNA were evaluated as oxidation products. The inhibitory effect of CMPE against H2O2-induced macromolecular damage was evaluated using cultured HEp-2 cells. The results indicate that CMPE inhibits macromolecular damage both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, CMPE regulates redox status of HEp-2 cells under oxidative stress conditions by maintaining higher reduced glutathione levels. There was no significant difference in the expression of glutathione peroxidase in stressed and unstressed cells suggesting that CMPE regulates the cellular oxidative stress responses without affecting the expression of oxidative stress response genes. Oral feeding of Wistar rats with CMPE improves the serum and plasma antioxidant status without causing any toxic effects.
Interfacial and Micellization Behavior of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) in Water and Methanol-Water Mixture at 298.15 to 323.15 K
The micellization behavior of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in water , 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 volume fractions of methanol at 298.15, 308.15, 318.15, and 323.15 K were investigated by surface tension measurements. The effect of methanol on values of critical micelle concentration (cmc), free energies of micellization , and surface properties viz. maximum surface excess concentration , area occupied by per surfactant molecule , surface pressure , solution surface tension , solvent surface tension (γo), free energies of adsorption , the efficiency of adsorption (pC20), effective Gibbs free energy , and free energy of surface at equilibrium (Gmin) were investigated using surface tension values. Other parameters such as the packing parameter (), aggregation number (N), concentration of surfactant in the bulk phase (C20), relation between Amin and πcmc, and correlation of slopes , , , , , and with the volume fraction of methanol are calculated and discussed in the light of the experiment done.
Organocatalytic Cascade Reaction of Aliphatic Enals and Benzoylnitromethane: Synthesis of Enantioenriched Tetrasubstituted Cyclohexene Carbaldehyde
A new example of the reactivity of enals with benzoylnitromethane was studied in a Michael-Michael-Aldol-Dehydration quadruple organocascade reaction. The reaction unexpectedly yielded a tetrasubstituted cyclohexene carbaldehyde with excellent enantiomeric excess when crotonaldehyde was used as the Michael-acceptor, whereas using (E)-Hex-2-enal as the Michael-acceptor formed a cyclic hemiacetal by steering the reaction into the intramolecular formation of the same intermediate via a Michael-Heterocyclization domino reaction.
Synthesis of Phenols via Metal-Free Hydroxylation of Aryl Boronic Acids with Aqueous TBHP
An alternate procedure for oxidative hydroxylation of aryl boronic acids with aqueous TBHP to access phenols is described. The protocol tolerated various functional groups substituted with aromatic rings. The reaction was performed in water and free from transition metal oxidants.