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Journal of Chemistry publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry, including biological, environmental, forensic, inorganic, organic, physical and theoretical.
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Spray-Dried Griseofulvin-Lactose Matrix for Enhanced Solubility Using a Spray-Drying Biochemical Process
Griseofulvin (GF) is a hydrophobic drug with a low solubility. In order to improve the solubility of GF, which has low water solubility, this report uses the spray-drying technique to prepare complexes with lactose to promote the solubility and oral bioavailability of GF. The solution samples were spray dried using different ratios of ethanol or acetone solutions as dissolution media. By characterization of the obtained spray-dried powders, we found that the solubility of the different groups of samples obtained by spray drying was increased, and similarly, their dissolution rates were also increased to different degrees. By comparison, the greatest increase in solubility was obtained in an aqueous acetone solution, showing the greatest ability and efficiency of acetone in promoting the solubility of GF during the spray-drying process.
Simulation of the Electro-Superconducting System Based on the H Equation
In order to reduce the levitation energy consumption and increase the levitation air gap, a simulation study of the electrochemistry superconducting magnetic levitation system based on the H equation is proposed. Through finite element simulation, the magnetic field distribution, current distribution, force, and other characteristics of the magnetic suspension system in the superconducting gravimeter are obtained; the relationship between the force of the superconducting ball in the magnetic field and the height of the suspension body and the current of the suspension coil is analyzed; and the penetration rate, the magnetic gradient, penetration depth, and maximum magnetic induction intensity of the superconducting spherical surface of the single-coil electrochemistry superconducting magnetic levitation system are obtained by simulation calculation. Simulation results show that, at 1 s, we start to use 0.2 s, 0.4 s, 0.6 s, and 0.8 s time, respectively, to pass current into the floating coil until it reaches 4.4 A. The magnetic gradient of the electrochemistry superconducting magnetic levitation system using a single coil is too large to meet the requirements of gravity measurement, the penetration depth is much smaller than the thickness of the superconducting sphere, and the maximum magnetic field on the surface of the superconducting sphere is much smaller than the critical magnetic field value of the superconducting material, and no loss will occur. The critical magnetic field value of the superconducting sphere is much smaller than that of the superconducting sphere. The critical magnetic field value of the material will not quench, which verifies that the H equation can simulate the superconducting magnetic levitation system well and has a high simulation accuracy and efficiency.
Comparative Removal of Cr(VI) and F− Ions from Water by Freezing Technology
Trace element ions, such as Cr(VI) and F−, are of particular interest due to their environmental impact. Both ions exhibit an anionic nature in water that can show similar removal tendencies except for their significant differences in ionic radius, speciation forms, and kosmotropic-chaotropic behaviors. Accordingly, partial freezing was performed to examine the comparative freeze separation efficiencies of Cr(VI) and F– from aqueous solutions. Freeze desalination influencing parameters such as initial ion concentration, salt addition, and freeze duration were explored. Under optimal operating conditions, freeze separation efficiencies of 90 ± 0.12 to 95 ± 0.54% and 58 ± 0.23% to 60 ± 0.34% from 5 mg/L of Cr(VI) and F–, respectively, were demonstrated. The salt addition into the F–-containing solutions revealed more F– ion intercalation into the ice, initiating the decrement of freeze separation efficiency. The influences of structuring-destructuring (kosmotropicity-chaotropicity) and the size-exclusion nature of ice crystals were used to explain the plausible mechanism for the difference in freeze separation efficiency between Cr(VI) and F– ions.
The Catalytic Influence of Polymers and Surfactants on the Rate Constants of Reaction of Maltose with Cerium (IV) in Acidic Aqueous Medium
Kinetics of the reaction of maltose with cerium ammonium sulfate were analyzed spectrophotometrically by observing the decrease of the absorbance of cerium (IV) at 385 nm in the presence and absence of polyethylene glycols (600, 1500, and 4000) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), in addition to anionic micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and non-ionic micelles of Tween 20 surfactants. Generally, there is little literature about using the polymers (PEGs and PVP) as catalysts in the oxidation-reduction reactions. Therefore, the major target of this work was to investigate the influence of the nature of polymers and surfactants on the oxidation rates of maltose by cerium (IV) in acidic aqueous media, as well as employing the Piszkiewicz model to explain the catalytic effect. The kinetic runs were derived by adaptation of the pseudo first-order reaction conditions with respect to the cerium (IV). The reaction was found to be first-order with respect to the oxidant and fractional-order to maltose and H2SO4. The reaction rates were enhanced in the presence of polymer and micellar catalysis. Indeed, the surfactants were found to work perfectly close to their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). Electrostatic interaction and H-bonding appear to play an influential role in binding maltose molecules to polymer/surfactant micelles, while oxidant ions remain at the periphery of the Stern layer within the micelle.
In Silico Study of Alkaloids: Neferine and Berbamine Potentially Inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, has been a global concern. While there have been some vaccines and drugs, the rapid emergence of variants due to mutations has threatened public health. As the de novo drug development process is expensive and time-consuming, repurposing existing antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is an alternative and promising approach to mitigate the current situation. Several studies have indicated that some natural products exhibit inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2. This study is aimed at analyzing the potential of natural alkaloids, using various computational tools, as drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. The molecular docking analysis predicted that naturally occurring alkaloids can bind with RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRP). The QSAR analysis was conducted by using the way2drug/PASS online web resource, and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity properties of these alkaloids were predicted using pkCSM, SwissADME, and ProTox-II webserver. Among the different alkaloids studied, neferine and berbamine were repurposed as potential drug candidates based on their binding affinity and interactions with RdRP. Further, molecular dynamics simulation of 90 ns revealed the conformational stability of the neferine-RdRP complex.
Identification of Pathogens and Laboratory Activity Test of Kiwifruit Rot Disease in Guizhou Province, China
Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) postharvest decay is common in China, which can cause serious economic losses to kiwifruit industry. In order to further clarify the pathogen of kiwifruit rot disease in Guizhou Province, the rotten fruits of kiwifruit (cultivar “Jinyan”) were collected, and the pathogenic fungi were identified by isolation and purification, pathogenicity test, morphological characteristics, and analysis of rDNA-ITS sequences. The results showed that the pathogenic fungi of kiwifruit rot disease were Diaporthe phaseolorum and Fusarium tricinctum. Meanwhile, the results showed that all the tested agents had a certain inhibitory effect on Diaporthe phaseolorum and Fusarium tricinctum. Among them, 33.5% quinolone SC had the best inhibitory effect on Diaporthe phaseolorum with an EC50 value of 9.67 mg/L, and 25% fludioxonil SC had the best inhibitory effect on Fusarium tridentatus with the EC50 value of 13.13 mg/L. The results will provide a reference for the control of kiwifruit rot disease.