Selective Allylic Oxidation of Terpenic Olefins Using Co-Ag Supported on SiO2 as a Novel, Efficient, and Recyclable CatalystRead the full article
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Continuous Adsorption Modeling and Fixed Bed Column Studies: Adsorption of Tannery Wastewater Pollutants Using Beach Sand
This study deals with the removal of residual pollutants from tanning wastewater by continuous adsorption mechanism, using local sand as a low-cost adsorbent. The possibility of pretreating a complex tannery effluent heavily loaded with a natural material such as sand is significant. The characterization of the adsorbent before and after continuous adsorption was performed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Column studies were also carried out to evaluate the performance of the adsorbent and the efficiency of column adsorption. The adsorption kinetic rate seems to be strongly influenced by certain parameters such as the particle size of the material used, the withdrawal rate of the influent and the height of the adsorbent bed, and optimized parameters were found to be 63 μm, 15 ml·min−1, and 7 cm, respectively, and the color removal has achieved maximum values which vary between 95 and 100%. The results suggest that sand can be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of color from the wastewater of the tanning industries.
Characteristics of Corrosion Related to Ash Deposition on Boiler Heating Surface during Cofiring of Coal and Biomass
In order to investigate the regularity and mechanism of corrosion related to ash deposition on the boiler heating surface during cofiring of coal and biomass, the influence of fuel property, type of metal tubes (heating surface), proportion of blended biomass, and atmosphere in the furnace was studied by using the static corrosion mass gain method with the high-temperature tube furnace system. The results indicated that the effect of biomass property on ash corrosion is greater than that of coal, which was mainly due to high content of alkali metals and chlorine in biomass fuels. The corrosion resistance of metal pipes is T91 > 12CrMoVG > 20G. T91 is the most appropriate one, and it can effectively inhibit chlorine corrosion and can be used as the ideal material for the biomass-fired boiler and the biomass and coal cofired boiler. In addition, ash deposition can significantly aggravate the corrosion of metal tubes, and the degree of corrosion tends to become significant with increasing proportion of blended biomass fuels. HCl can aggravate metal corrosion, which can be inhibited by SO2.
Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Evaporated Casting MWCNT/Chitosan Composite Membranes for Water Desalination
Fresh water scarcity and pollution turn out to be a most serious issue throughout the world due to the rapid population growth. The application of nanomaterials (NMs) for the removal of pollutants from water has attracted significant attention. The nanofiltration membrane was fabricated through the evaporative casting (EC) method using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and chitosan (CHIT) as the surfactant to enable water purification. The developed EC membrane properties were characterized in mechanical, surface charging (zeta potential), surface morphology, and hydrophobicity properties. Results demonstrated that incorporation of MWCNT and the biopolymers (chitosan) resulted in suitable developments in mechanical properties of the membrane. For example, the membrane has shown values for tensile strength (28 ± 1 MPa), elongation (10.2 ± 1.2%), Young’s modulus (1.2 ± 0.1 GPa), and toughness of (1.9 ± 0.2 J/g). When more significant changes were investigated on the surface morphology of the EC membrane, it was observed that the pores on the surface morphology of the EC membrane decreased as the evaporative casting method was used. Moreover, the permeability of the membrane towards water, inorganic salts, and pH effect on salt rejections was studied using the NF/RO system. These established nanocomposite membranes signify the promising candidates for fresh water desalination and elimination of organic impurities.
Effect of Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying on the Properties of Soybean Hydrolysates
The use of enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction to extract soybean oil will produce soy protein hydrolysates (SPH) that have good antioxidant properties but are bitter and hygroscopic. To microencapsulate these hydrolysates, soy protein isolate/maltodextrin mixtures were used as the carrier. The effects of spray-drying and freeze-drying on the bitterness, hygroscopicity, and antioxidant properties were compared. The properties of different dried samples were compared using solubility, hygroscopicity, moisture content, water activity, flowability, and glass transition temperature (Tg). The results showed that the spray-drying was more effective than freeze-drying. Hygroscopicity was reduced to 18.2 g/100 g, and the Tg value was raised to 80.8°C. The morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, and the antioxidant properties of the samples were measured using the ABTS˙+ radical scavenging activity. The results showed that spray-dried SPH had more carrier masking, which weakened bitterness, reduced moisture absorption, and had no significant negative impact on its oxidation resistance, solubility, and flowability, and spray-drying after carrier encapsulation of SPH improved the recovery rate.
Compatibility Study of 1,1-Diamino-2,2-Dinitroethene (FOX-7) with Some Energetic Materials
1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) is a novel explosive with low sensitivity and high performance. The compatibility of FOX-7 with nine common energetic materials including hexanitrohexazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), 3,4-dinitrofurazanfuroxan (DNTF), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), hexanitrostilbene (HNS-II), 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (LLM-105), 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the vacuum stability test (VST) as the thermal technique and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) as a nonthermal technique. DSC measurements showed that the binary systems of FOX-7/CL-20, FOX-7/HMX, FOX-7/NTO, and FOX-7/TNT were compatible in grade of A, the systems of FOX-7 with heat-resistant explosives including HNS-II, LLM-105, and TATB were compatible as well in grade of A-B, and the binary systems of FOX-7/DNTF and FOX-7/RDX had poor compatibility. VST results indicated that FOX-7 was compatible with nine energetic materials. Besides, the compatibility results of the thermal analysis were confirmed by the XRD technique.
Characterization of Phenolic Constituents from Prunus cerasifera Ldb Leaves
To elucidate the chemical compositions of Prunus cerasifera Ldb leaves, the methanol extracts were firstly fractionated by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. The phenolic acid-rich fractions (ethyl acetate extracts) were further isolated by various chromatographic columns (CC) including MCI macroporous resin, normal-phase silica gel, Sephadex gel LH-20, octadecyl silane (ODS), and preparative HPLC to yield the phenolic compounds. The isolated compounds were analyzed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), 13C-NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectral (ESI-MS) spectroscopy. Eleven phenolic acids were identified as p-coumaric acid (1), caffeic acid (2), ferulic acid (3), chlorogenic acid (4), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 5-O-coumaroylquinic acid (6), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7), chlorogenic acid methyl ester (8), 3-O-caffeoyl-5-O-coumaroylquinic acid or 3-O-coumaroyl-5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (9), gallic acid (10), and protocatechuic acid (11). The current study pioneers to identify and report all the phenolic constituents from P. cerasifera Ldb leaves.