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Journal of Chemistry publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry, including biological, environmental, forensic, inorganic, organic, physical and theoretical.
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The Efficacy of Chlorantraniliprole as a Seed Treatment for Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
The oriental armyworm (OAW), Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest in China and causes serious economic losses in corn. The anthranilic diamide, chlorantraniliprole (CHL), has been widely used as a seed treatment to control corn pests; however, no information is available on the efficacy of this insecticide as a seed treatment for OAW. In this study, the efficacy of seed treatment with CHL alone and CHL combined with the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin (CHL + CLO) was evaluated for controlling OAW larvae in the laboratory and field conditions. Pot experiments demonstrated that seed treatment with CHL and CHL + CLO (both 240 g a.i. 100 kg−1 seeds) resulted in >79% mortality of OAW larvae and a damage rate <20% in corn at 14 days after seed emergence (DAE). Similar to results obtained in pots, the residual toxicity of CHL and CHL + CLO to OAW larvae in the field declined with DAE and larval development. The control efficacy of field plots treated with CHL and CHL + CLO was >70% within 14 DAE, which was significantly higher than CLO alone. These results suggest that CHL and CHL + CLO as seed treatments could effectively reduce OAW larval infestation in corn. This study validates the effectiveness of corn seed treatment for OAW as an alternative to conventional foliar applications.
Amino Acid-Doped Polyaniline Nanotubes as Efficient Adsorbent for Wastewater Treatment
A natural amino acid-doped polyaniline nanostructure was prepared by a simple in situ chemical polymerization method in an aqueous medium. The structure and morphology of composite material were characterized by FESEM, TEM, FT-IR, and XRD. The results showed that the product possesses a large aspect ratio and a hollow tubular morphology. As-synthesized products were further applied to remove dyes and heavy metal ions from the aqueous solution, which exhibited good removal capacity toward Congo red (955.6 mg·g−1) and Cr(VI) (60.0 mg·g−1). The adsorption data for the former were found to be well described by the pseudo-first-order kinetic and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies show that the adsorption of Congo red by GluP is a spontaneous and endothermic process. Moreover, cyclic experiment results show that the polyaniline composites exhibited good recyclability. Therefore, these amino acid-doped polyaniline nanotubes can be expected to be an ideal candidate for the removal of organic dye and heavy metal ions from wastewater.
Quantitative Detection of Amino Acids and Carnitine in Human Blood and Quality Control of Peptide Drugs
In order to deal with the biochemical metabolic disorder and the lack of end metabolites caused by hereditary metabolic diseases, a quantitative detection method of amino acids and carnitine in human blood and the quality control method of polypeptide drugs were proposed. First, a method for the detection of 10 amino acids and 32 acylcarnitine metabolites in human blood was established and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Through the experimental research on typical peptide drugs, combined with the classical synthesis process and the PLS-DA model of human body in different regions, the relevant detection methods for the quality control of peptide drugs were established, which provided a reference for the formulation of peptide drug quality standards. The experimental results show that the quantitative detection method proposed in this paper can effectively detect the content of most amino acids and acylcarnitine. The classical detection method achieved a loss of 16.74% smaller mass-to-charge ratio, and based on this, the quantitative standard for polypeptide drug delivery was determined, which verifies the correctness and superiority of the detection method in this paper.
Adsorptive Behavior of Tartaric Acid Treated Holarrhena antidysenterica and Citrullus colocynthis Biowastes for Decolourization of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solutions
The aim of the present work is to eradicate Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions since the dye compounds are harmful to human life and the environment leading to detrimental results. For this purpose, Holarrhena antidysenterica (HA) and Citrullus colocynthis (CC) adsorbents were used for the adsorptive removal of Congo red dye from wastewaters. The unmodified adsorbents (U-HA and U-CC) were chemically modified using tartaric acid (TA). Morphological structures were examined by FTIR and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were tested at a variety of pH, time exposure, temperatures, and adsorbent dosages. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (), enthalpy (), entropy changes (), and energy of activation () were also calculated. The results revealed that tartaric acid-Citrullus colocynthis (TA-CC) gave optimum conditions of time of contact (35 min), temperature conditions (40°C), pH (3), and dosage of adsorbent (1.6 g) for maximum dye removal. Tartaric acid-Holarrhena antidysenterica (TA-HA) gave equilibrium time of contact (30 min), temperature (40°C), and pH optimum (2) along with a 1.6 g dosage of adsorbent. Mechanistic understanding of adsorption isotherm provided that the Langmuir model was followed by raw and modified adsorbents. Maximum adsorption capacities attained were 60.61 (mg g-1), 128.21 (mg g-1), 87.71 (mg g-1), and 131.57 (mg g-1), respectively, for U-HA, TA-HA, U-CC, and TA-CC. The results of kinetic modeling displayed a high value of (0.99) along with minimal error (RMSE) for dye removal showing that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model has acceptable accuracy. Fourier transform infrared proposed the electrostatic, pi-pi interactions, and hydrogen bonding as dominant adsorption mechanisms at acidic pH, respectively. Rate-determining steps comprise both surface and intraparticle diffusions. Thermodynamics indicated that the dye adsorption of CR is spontaneous, exothermic, and favorable in nature. These agricultural wastes due to specific points such as low cost, availability, and high removal rates of adsorption are highly competent for the expulsion of anionic dye like CR from wastewaters.
An In Silico Study of the Interactions of Alkaloids from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta with Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase and Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase
The Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) are essential for Plasmodium falciparum growth and development, and have been validated as targets for the development of new antimalarial agents. Several alkaloids isolated from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta have been reported to have antiplasmodial activity, but their protein targets are unknown. Therefore, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate the interactions and stability of the alkaloids with PfDHFR and PfDHODH. Based on physicochemical characteristics, alkaloids were grouped as sterically bulky (sb) or planar (pg). Docking results revealed strong binding affinities (−6.0 to −13.4 kcal/mol) of the alkaloids against PfDHODH and various strains of PfDHFR while interacting with key residues such as Asp54 and Phe58 in PfDHFR. The pg alkaloids had high binding affinity and preference for the inhibitor binding domain over the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding domain in PfDHODH due to size considerations. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, protein-alkaloid complexes were stable throughout the simulation, with supporting evidence from root mean square deviations, root mean square fluctuations, radius of gyration, free binding energies, and other parameters. We report herein that biscryptolepine and cryptomisrine (sb class), as well as cryptolepinone, cryptoheptine, cryptolepine, and neocryptolepine (pg class), are capable of inhibiting PfDHFR effectively in pyrimethamine sensitive and resistant cells. Also, our results show that alkaloids of the pg class can inhibit PfDHODH as FMN decoys, as well as direct enzyme inhibitors, thereby halting crucial protein function.
Comparative Study of the Antioxidant Power of Polyphenols of Leaves, Fruits, and Bark of Pistacia atlantica Desf. from Morocco
Pistacia atlantica Desf. is a widely used plant species in the traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties. The aim of this study is the valorisation of polyphenols and the antioxidant power of three organs from Pistacia atlantica Desf. (leaves, fruits, and bark). Phytochemical screening of secondary metabolites was performed using precipitation and coloring reactions. Total phenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins were quantified, respectively, by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the aluminum trichloride method, and the vanillin method. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity was made using two methods: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power). The obtained results showed that the three organs of Pistacia atlantica are rich in total phenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins. The highest contents of total phenols and flavonoids are recorded by the crude fruit extract, 723 mg EGA/gE and 34.57 mg EQ/gE, respectively, while the highest content of condensed tannins is recorded in the butanolic extract of the leaves (997.58 mg ECat/gE). The antioxidant activity of the three organs extracts from Pistacia atlantica Desf. confirmed their strong antiradical power, much higher than that of ascorbic acid and BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole). Indeed, the concentration of the crude extract of P. atlantica leaves reducing 50% of the DPPH free radicals (IC50) is 27.22 μg/ml. This concentration is much lower than those of ascorbic acid (31.44 μg/ml) and BHA (46.25 μg/ml). The antioxidant power using the FRAP method has also shown that the leaves extract of this species has a much higher reducing capacity of iron than those of the reference standards. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and flavonoids contents of leaves and fruits extracts was observed. The two methods (DPPH and FRAP) proved that the three organ extracts of Pistacia atlantica possess very remarkable antioxydant activity. These extracts could be exploited as natural antioxidants against the oxidation phenomenons and the oxidative stress in several fields (food, cosmetic, pharmaceutic, and others).