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Journal of Chemistry publishes original research articles as well as review articles on all aspects of fundamental and applied chemistry, including biological, environmental, forensic, inorganic, organic, physical and theoretical.
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Novel One-Pot Solvothermal Synthesis of High-Performance Copper Hexacyanoferrate for Cs+ Removal from Wastewater
Efficient removal of radioactive cesium from complex wastewater is a challenge. Unlike traditional precipitation and hydrothermal synthesis, a novel vast specific surface area adsorbent of copper hexacyanoferrates named EA-CuHCF was synthesized using a one-pot solvothermal method under the moderate ethanol media characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, BET, and FTIR. It was found that the maximum adsorption capacity towards Cs+ was 452.5 mg/g, which is far higher than most of the reported Prussian blue analogues so far. Moreover, EA-CuHCF could effectively adsorb Cs+ at a wide pH range and low concentration of Cs+ in geothermal water within 30 minutes, and the removal rate of Cs+ was 92.1%. Finally, the separation factors between Cs+ and other competitive ions were higher than 553, and the distribution coefficient of Cs+ reached up to 2.343 × 104 mL/g. These properties suggest that EA-CuHCF synthesized by the solvothermal method has high capacity and selectivity and can be used as a candidate for Cs+ removal from wastewater.
Snail Shells Adsorbent for Copper Removal from Aqueous Solutions and the Production of Valuable Compounds
This research explored the efficiency of snail shells powder (SSP) for Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions and the production of valuable compounds from the residual product. To confirm its chemical and mineral components, the material was characterized by different instrumental techniques. The effects of experimental parameters such as the pH of the solution, the effect of SSP dose, particle size, and initial concentration of Cu(II) on the removal process were studied. The removal of Cu(II) was reasonably fast to be completed within a time frame of 90 min. The kinetics following the pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.979) were better compared to the pseudo-first-order model (R2 = 0.896). The increase in pH values leads to an increase in the amount of Cu(II) adsorbed. Afterward, the adsorption capacity reaches stability at pH near 7. The maximum Cu(II) removal occurred with a mass of 8 g·L−1 and a particle size of 300 μm. This particle size presents approximately 44.5% of SSP particles, which is the largest proportion of the sample as shown by particle size analysis. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The thermodynamic parameters values showed that the Cu(II) adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. Furthermore, with the presence of CaCO3, the precipitation of Cu(II) in the form of posnjakite occurred with a high Cu(II) removal rate close to 99%. The residual SSP was used for the production of valuable compounds through the thermal decomposition process at various temperatures.
Osteogenic Activity of Lupeol Isolated from Clinacanthus nutans Lindau: Activity and Mode of Action
Clinacanthus nutans Lindau has been traditionally used for healing of bone fragility, but the mechanism of actions has not been clarified yet. In this study, the bone regeneration activity of lupeol derived from C. nutans was assessed using an in vitro model of osteoblast cells MC3T3-E1. The finding revealed that the compound was not significantly toxic to osteoblast cells at concentration of ≤40 μg/mL. Lupeol demonstrated the osteogenic activity through enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of osteoblast cells up to 31.2%, 21%, and 12% at concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 µg/mL, respectively ( < 0.05). Besides, the mineralization activity was increased up to 170, 230, 185, and 117% at concentration of 5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL, respectively ( < 0.05). The marker genes related to osteoblast differentiation evaluated on the expression level in the presence of lupeol, including collagen I (col 1), osteopontin (opn), osterix (osx), and runx2, showed upregulated expression in all the test genes ( < 0.05). The Western blot analysis demonstrated a clear effect of lupeol on expression of p38/p-p38, and ERK/p-ERK proteins involved in the MAPK signaling pathway. Thus, lupeol isolated from C. nutans exhibited the osteogenic activity by enhancing expression of important markers of osteogenesis, as well as affected the MAPK signaling pathway relating to osteoblast differentiation. This is the first report on the detailed mechanism of action of lupeol on bone regeneration and also explains for the traditional use of this medicinal plant for bone healing.
Nickel Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Chemically Treated Mahogany Sawdust as Biosorbent
Sawdust is a waste material, which is generally produced during making furniture and other necessary wood products. With a view to utilizing this waste material, a biosorbent was prepared from mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) sawdust through simple chemical treatment and was used to remove nickel ion (Ni2+) from an aqueous solution. The adsorbent material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The effects of biosorbent dosage (2∼18 g/L), pH of the tested solution (4∼10.5), contact time (up to 360 min), and temperature (298∼318 K) were studied in batchwise experiments. The maximum adsorption capacity of the treated sawdust was determined to be 13.42 mg/g at an optimum condition (sorbent dose of 15 g/L, pH of 9, and temperature of 298 K). The experimental data extrapolation revealed that the adsorption process fitted the Langmuir isotherm model and the kinetics was a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The obtained thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption reaction was spontaneous, endothermic, and random in nature. The study revealed that sawdust biosorbent has potential adsorption efficiency for nickel ion removal from an aqueous solution.
Effects of Pentoxifylline in a Rat Model of Manganism: Evaluation of the Possible Toxicity
Objective. Manganese (Mn) has been reported, through dietary and occupational overexposure, to induce neurotoxicity named manganism. Pentoxifylline (PTX) administration attracts much attention considering the beneficial properties of PTX, as an anti-inflammatory and smooth muscle relaxation agent. This in vivo study aims to evaluate the effect of PTX on manganism in rat model. Materials and Methods. Thirty adult male Sprague Dawley rats received MnCl2 (100 mg/kg, i.p. on days 1, 3, and 7) during a week alone or in combination with PTX (300 mg/kg, i.p. every day for 8 consecutive days on manganism rat model). Several locomotor activity indices, as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress, were monitored in the brain tissue of Mn-exposed animals. Results. It was found that PTX supplementation (300 mg/kg, i.p.) deteriorated the Mn-induced locomotor deficit. This drug also increased the Mn brain accumulation as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation products in the manganism rat model. Moreover, the levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) were shown to be reduced significantly compared to the control group. Conclusion. The results of this study revealed that PTX at a high dose (300 mg/kg) might increase manganism complications. PTX lowers the blood viscosity, improves the tissue perfusion, and increases the Mn levels in the brain.
Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite- (HAP-) Clay Composites and Adsorption Studies on Methylene Blue for Water Treatment
Dyes used by the textile, tannery, and food industries tend to pollute water bodies and must be removed to get clean water. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) was synthesized from eggshells using the wet precipitation process. The as-synthesized HAP was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The synthesized HAP was mixed with three different clays: halloysite (HNT), kaolinite (KAO), and bentonite (BENT). The removal efficiency values of methylene blue (MB) from the data showed that HAP-BENT adsorbents had higher values, followed by HAP-HNT and then HAP-KAO adsorbents. The combined masses of 24 mg, 34.5 mg, and 33 mg (representing 20%, 15%, and 10% of HAP-BENT mass) had average adsorption capacity values of 20.7 mg/g, 17.2 mg/g, and 17.9 mg/g, respectively. For each mass percentage, the adsorption capacity values were found to decrease with adsorbent dosage. The HAP-BENT composites had removal efficiency values of 98.4, 91.9%, and 91.9%, respectively. Adsorption data for the HAP-BENT adsorbents were found to be well described by the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The effect of temperature on adsorption capacity was evaluated and thermodynamical modeling was undertaken. The thermodynamical modeling predicts that based on the value of the change in enthalpy and Gibbs free energy the process was exothermic and spontaneous. This work confirms the potential of HAP-clay composites in removing MB from water.