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E-Journal of Chemistry
Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1667-1675
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/154616

Nitrate Removal from Ground Water: A Review

1Department of Chemical Engineering, M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore-560054, India
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
3Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Received 1 March 2011; Accepted 27 April 2011

Copyright © 2012 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nitrate contamination of ground water resources has increased in Asia, Europe, United States, and various other parts of the world. This trend has raised concern as nitrates cause methemoglobinemia and cancer. Several treatment processes can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that biological denitrification is more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis and ion exchange. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes which can be effectively used for denitrifying ground water as well as industrial water.