Research Article | Open Access
Rajesh K. Joshi, "Chemical Composition of the Essential oil of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. Roots from India", Journal of Chemistry, vol. 2013, Article ID 195057, 4 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/195057
Chemical Composition of the Essential oil of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. Roots from India
The hydrodistilled essential oil of the roots of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of twenty-nine compounds have been identified, accounting 97.6% of the total oil. The main constituents were himachalol (24.2%), 7-isopropyl-1,4-dimethyl-2-azulenol (17.6%), androencecalinol (14.1%), and 2-methoxy-6-(1-methoxy-2-propenyl) naphthalene (5.6%). The essential oil consists mainly of phenyl derivatives (41.6%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes ((26.6%), long-chain hydrocarbons (18.9%), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (6.8%), oxygenated monoterpenes (2.8%), and monoterpene hydrocarbons (0.9%). This study revealed that the roots of C. odorata produced different chemotypes other than leaves oil. This is the first report on the essential oil composition of the roots of C. odorata.
Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. (Syn: Eupatorium odoratum L.) (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb and distributed throughout India, tropical Asia, and Mexico [1, 2]. In traditional medicine this plant is used in the treatment of coughs, colds, and skin diseases , wound healing, and as a local antiseptic agent . C. odorata is a medicinal plant having diverse pharmacological properties, namely, anti-inflammatory [5, 6], antimicrobial [7, 8], antigonorrhoeal , antipyretic, antispasmodic , diuretic , analgesic , and wound healing  activities. The chemical compositions of the essential oils of C. odorata that have been reported from different countries [13–20] are summarized in Table 1. The essential oil constituents of the leaves of C. odorata from Benin reported as α-pinene, pregeijerene, geijerene, β-pinene, and germacrene D  as the major compounds. In a report from Cameroon and Congo, α-pinene and p-cymene , while, from India, pregeijerene, epi-cubebol, cubebol, cis-sabinene hydrate, 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, germacrene-D-4-ol, δ-cadinene, germacrene D, geijerene, cyperene, 10-epi-γ-eudesmol, α-muurolol and khusimone  have been identified as the major constituents. The major compounds such as α-pinene, geijerene, and pregeijerene from Ivory Coast [16, 17] and α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene D, β-copaen-4α-ol, β-caryophyllene, geijerene, pregeijerene , α-pinene, cadinene, camphor, limonene, β-caryophyllene and cadinol isomer  from Nigeria have been identified. In another report from Thailand, pregeijerene, germacrene D, α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, vestitenone, β-pinene, δ-cadinene, geijerene, bulnesol, and trans-ocimene  have been reported as the major constituents. Review of literature revealed that the essential oil composition of the roots of C. odorata has not been examined. Thus the aim of this work is to present the volatile constituents from the roots of C. odorata. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first report on the essential oil composition of the roots of C. odorata.
2.1. Plant Material
The roots of C. odorata were collected in June 2011, at a height of 800 m from the district Belgaum (N 15.88668; E 74.52353), Karnataka, India. The plant was identified by Dr. Harsha Hegde, Research Scientist, Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Belgaum (voucher specimen no. RMRC-410).
2.2. Isolation of Essential Oil
The fresh plant material (250 g) was chopped in small pieces and subjected to hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 h. The oil was collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and stored in sealed vials at −4°C until analysis. The oil yield was 0.3% v/w.
2.3. Gas Chromatography
The GC analysis of the oil was carried out on Varian 450 gas chromatograph equipped with FID, using stationary phase CP Sil-8-CB (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 μm film thickness) column under the experimental conditions reported earlier . Nitrogen was a carrier gas at 1.0 mL/min flow rate. Temperature programming was set to 60–220°C at 3°C/min and the injector and detector temperatures were 230 and 250°C, respectively. The injection volume was 1.0 mL of 1% solution diluted in n-hexane; split ratio was 1 : 50.
2.4. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
The GC-MS analysis of the oil was carried out on Thermo Scientific Trace Ultra GC (Thermo Fisher Scientific Austria, Vienna, Austria) interfaced with a Thermo Scientific ITQ 1100 Mass Spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific Austria) fitted with TG-5 (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 μm film thickness) column. The oven temperature was programmed from 60 to 220°C at 3°C/min using helium as a carrier gas at 1.0 mL/min. The injector temperature was 230°C, injection volume was 0.1 mL of 1% solution prepared in n-hexane; split ratio was 1 : 50. MS were taken at 70 eV with mass scan range of 40–450 amu.
2.5. Identification of the Components
Identification of the constituents was done on the basis of retention index (RI, determined with reference to homologous series of n-alkanes C8–C25, under identical experimental conditions), MS library search (NIST 08 MS Library Version 2.0 f; Thermo Fisher Scientific Austria), and WILEY MS 9th Edition (Thermo Fisher Scientific Austria) and by comparing with the MS literature data . The relative amounts of individual components were calculated based on the GC peak area (FID response) without using a correction factor.
3. Results and Discussion
Twenty-nine compounds were characterized and identified by GC-MS, comprising 97.6% of the total oil. The identified compounds are listed in Table 1 in elution order from the TG-5 MS column, along with the percentage composition of each component and its retention index. The main constituents were himachalol (24.2%), 7-isopropyl-1,4-dimethyl-2-azulenol (17.6%), androencecalinol (14.1%), and 2-methoxy-6-(1-methoxy-2-propenyl) naphthalene (5.6%). The essential oil consists mainly of 5 phenyl derivatives (41.6%), followed by 5 oxygenated sesquiterpenes (26.6%), 6 long-chain hydrocarbons (18.9%), 6 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (6.8%), 4 oxygenated monoterpenes (2.8%), and 3 monoterpene hydrocarbons (0.9%). It is interesting that constituents identified in the essential oil of the roots of C. odorata were found contrary (see Table 2). The signature compounds from the leaves oil of this plant reported from different countries were almost the same with quantitative differences. The major constituents, pregeijerene, epi-cubebol, cubebol, cis-sabinene hydrate, germacrene-D-4-ol, germacrene D, geijerene, cyperene, α-muurolol, khusimone, β-copaen-4α-ol, camphor, limonene, vestitenone, bulnesol, and trans-ocimene (Table 1) were reported from the leaves oil of C. odorata, which could not identified even in trace amount from the roots oil of this plant. Moreover, the majority of the oil composition from other plant parts, namely, aerial parts and flowers of C. odorata were dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons [13–20]. In this report, it is found that long-chain hydrocarbons and high contents of phenyl derivative compounds are present. The composition of the essential oil often changes between different plant parts . The difference in the complex composition of essential oils of one kind may sometimes be difficult to assign to specific chemotypes. The formation of essential oils depends on the tissue differentiation (secretory cells and excretion cavities, etc.) and on ontogenetic phase of the respective plant . The conclusion of this study revealed that the roots of C. odorata produced different chemotypes, namely, himachalol, 7-isopropyl-1,4-dimethyl-2-azulenol, androencecalinol, and 2-methoxy-6-(1-methoxy-2-propenyl) naphthalene, other than reported from the leaves oil.
|RI: Retention index relative to C8–C25 -alkanes on TG-5 column, MS: NIST and Wiley library, and the literature, t: trace (<0.1%).|
Conflict of Interests
The author reports no conflict of interests. The author alone is responsible for the content and writing of this paper.
The author is thankful to the Dr. S. D. Kholkute, Director in Charge, Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Belgaum, Karnataka, India, for providing necessary facilities and also thankful to Mr. Manjunath Patil, Laboratory Attendant, Department of Phytochemistry, RMRC, Belgaum, for the collection of the plant materials and extraction of the essential oils.
- P. K. Hajra, R. R. Rao, D. K. Singh, and B. P. Uniyal, Flora of India, Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, India, 1995.
- R. A. Howard, Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Leeward and Windward Islands, Harvard University, Jamaica Plain, Arnold Arboretum, USA, 1989.
- J. F. Morton, Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America, vol. 2, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill, USA, 1981.
- E. Adjanohoun and L. Ake-Assi, Contribution Au Recensement des Plantes Medicinale de Cote D’Ivoire, Centre National de Floristique, Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 1979.
- V. B. Owoyele, J. O. Adediji, and A. O. Soladoye, “Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata,” Inflammopharmacology, vol. 13, no. 5-6, pp. 479–484, 2005.
- O. B. Taiwo, O. A. Olajide, O. O. Soyannwo, and J. M. Makinde, “Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antispasmodic: properties of Chromolaena odorata,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 367–370, 2000.
- M. T. Chomnawang, S. Surassmo, V. S. Nukoolkarn, and W. Gritsanapan, “Antimicrobial effects of Thai medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 101, no. 1–3, pp. 330–333, 2005.
- S. I. Inya-Agha, B. O. Oguntimein, A. Sofowora, and T. V. Benjamin, “Phytochemical and antibacterial studies on the essential oil of Eupatorium odoratum,” International Journal of Crude Drug Research, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 49–52, 1987.
- A. Cáceres, H. Menéndez, E. Méndez et al., “Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 85–88, 1995.
- R. Gopinath, J. A. J. Sunilson, S. Radhamani, A. Das, and K. Nilugal, “Diuretic activity of Eupatorium odoratum Linn,” Journal of Pharmacy Research, vol. 2, pp. 844–846, 2009.
- P. K. Jena and A. K. Chakraborty, “Evaluation of analgesic activity studies of various extracts of leaves of Eupatorium Odoratum Linn,” International Journal of Pharmacy and Technolog, vol. 2, pp. 612–616, 2010.
- P. R. Biswal, K. K. Sardar, S. C. Parija, P. R. Mishra, and S. N. Misra, “Wound healing effect of Eupatorium odoratum Linn. and Himax in rabbits,” Indian Journal of Indigenous Medicines, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 71–74, 1997.
- A. Félicien, A. G. Alain, D. T. Sébastien et al., “Chemical composition and Biological activities of the Essential oil extracted from the Fresh leaves of Chromolaena odorata (L. Robinson) growing in Benin,” Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 1, pp. 7–13, 2012.
- G. Lamaty, C. Menut, P. H. A. Zollo et al., “Aromatic plants of tropical central Africa. IV. Essential oils of Eupatorium odoratum from Cameroon and Congo,” Journal of Essential Oil Research, vol. 4, pp. 101–105, 1992.
- R. K. Joshi, “Chemical composition of the essential oils of aerial parts and flowers of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob. from Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India,” Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, vol. 16, pp. 71–75, 2013.
- G. Bedi, Z. F. Tonzibo, and T. Y. Nguessan, “Composition chimique des huiles essentielles de Chromolaena odorata L. King Robinson d’Abidjan-Cote d’Ivoire),” Le Journal de La Société Ouest-Africaine de Chimie, vol. 11, pp. 29–37, 2001.
- G. Bedi, Z. F. Tonzibo, C. Chopard, J. P. Mahy, and T. Y. Nguessan, “Etude des effets anti douleurs des huiles essentielles de Chromolaena odorata et de Mikania Cordata, par action sur la lipoxygenase,” Physical and Chemical News, vol. 15, pp. 124–127, 2004.
- M. S. Owolabi, A. Ogundajo, K. O. Yusuf et al., “Chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil of Chromolaena odorata from Nigeria,” Records of Natural Products, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 72–78, 2010.
- N. Pisutthanan, B. Liawruangrath, S. Liawruangrath et al., “Constituents of the essential oil from aerial parts of Chromolaena odorata from Thailand,” Natural Product Research, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 636–640, 2006.
- R. K. Joshi, “Chemical composition of the essential Oil of Baccharoides lilacina from India,” Natural Product Communications, vol. 8, pp. 401–402, 2013.
- R. P. Adams, Identification of Essential Oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, Allured Publishing, Carol Stream, Ill, USA, 2007.
- C. B. Johnson, A. Kazantzis, M. Skoula, U. Mitteregger, and J. Novak, “Seasonal, populational and ontogenic variation in the volatile oil content and composition of individuals of Origanum vulgare subsp. Hirtum, assessed by GC headspace analysis and by SPME sampling of individual oil glands,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 286–292, 2004.
- C. Franz and J. Novak, “Sources of essential oils,” in Handbook of Essential Oils Science, Technology, and Applications, K. H. C. Baser and G. Buchbauer, Eds., pp. 39–81, CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
Copyright © 2013 Rajesh K. Joshi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.