Table 2: The results for ultimate and proximate analyses.

Ultimate analysis
Component (%)Sunflower seed cakeActivated carbon

C52.1565.12
N5.199.41
H7.426.63
Oa35.2618.85
HHV (MJ/kg)28.3431.04

Proximate analysis of sunflower seed cake

Preliminary analysiswt.%
Moisture7.72
Ash6.17
Volatile75.15
Fixed carbona10.95
Structural analysis wt.%
Holocellulose22.90
Hemicellulose10.92
Extractive material23.59
Oil30.30
Lignin33.12
Cellulosea12.53

aEstimated by difference.