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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 274893, 7 pages
Research Article

Identification by HPLC-MS of Anthocyanin Derivatives in Raisins

1Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Cordoba, Edificio Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, 14014 Cordoba, Spain
2Polyphenols Research Group, Nutrition and Bromatology Section, Faculty of Pharmacy, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca, Spain

Received 13 June 2012; Accepted 12 August 2012

Academic Editor: Ioannis Kourkoutas

Copyright © 2013 Ana Marquez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The anthocyanin composition in red grapes dried under controlled conditions has been studied. Pyranoanthocyanins and condensed anthocyanins with flavanols by a methylmethine bridge have been identified. Typically, these compounds appear in wine after the fermentation process, as they require compounds such as pyruvic acid, acetoacetic acid, and acetaldehyde for their formation. During the chamber-drying process a stress situation is originated, inducing significant changes in the grape metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic, and as a result it produces the activation of the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (ADH) and others that would cause the formation of these compounds. These derivatives are very interesting because they give greater stability to the color of red wine.