Journal of Chemistry / 2013 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

Table 4

Identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by HS-SME-GC/MS from headspace of B. orellana plant extracts obtained from different plant parts and from the headspace in living plant fruits (in vivo sampling).

RIaVolatile compoundsSeedbWoodbLeafbBarkbFruitbIn vivoc
s.d. s.d. s.d. s.d. s.d. s.d.

Free fatty acids
1285Acetic acid0.030.02nd0.01ndndnd
16282-ethylhexanoic acidndndndndnd0.120.01
Total0.030.010.12

Alcohols
659Ethanol1.18 0.03ndnd0.021.060.03nd
8482-methyl-1-propanol0.01ndndnd0.03nd
9192-pentanolndndndnd0.01nd
9761-penten-3-olondndndnd0.01nd
10402-methyl-1-butanol0.130.05ndndnd0.05nd
11753-methyl-2-buten-1-ol0.01ndndndndnd
15732-methoxyphenol0.06ndndndndnd
1650Phenol0.01ndndndndnd
Total1.390.021.16

Aldehydes
6452-methyl-butanalndnd0.01ndndnd
6483-methyl-butanalndnd0.01ndndnd
687Pentanalndnd0.03ndndnd
815Hexanalndnd0.01ndnd0.120.01
10342-hexenalndnd0.01ndndnd
1243Nonanalndndndndnd0.170.02
1332Decanalndndndndnd0.170.03
1341Benzaldehydend2.200.04ndndnd0.10
Total2.200.070.56

Ketones
6142-propanonendnd0.02ndnd0.090.01
6542-methyl-3-butanonend0.710.01ndndndnd
6853-pentanonend2.500.02ndnd0.07nd
7012-methyl-3-pentanonend4.090.17ndndndnd
7124-methyl-2-pentanonendndndndnd0.290.03
8521,2-cycloctandione0.01ndndndndnd
9842-heptanonendndndnd0.01nd
11213-hydroxy-2-butanonend0.690.03ndndndnd
11896-methyl-5-hepten-2-one0.02nd0.01ndnd0.140.02
14224-tert-butylcyclohexanonendndndndnd0.500.06
Total0.037.990.030.081.03

Sulphur compounds
604Dimethyl sulfide0.250.02ndnd0.010.310.02nd
Total0.250.010.31

Furans
6392-methylfuran0.022.710.150.010.01ndnd
6712-ethylfuranndnd0.01ndndnd
Total0.022.710.020.01

Esters
618Methyl acetate0.01ndndndndnd
636Ethyl acetate0.510.12ndndndndnd
8952-methyl-1-butanol acetate0.03ndndndndnd
8983-methyl-1-butanol ecetate0.02ndndndndnd
Total0.57

Hydrocarbons
746Toluenendnd0.01ndndnd
884Ethylbenzenend2.240.06ndndnd2.720.03
894o-xylenendndndnd0.010.700.03
909p-xylene0.022.330.02nd0.01nd1.510.15
979m-xylenend0.730.09ndnd0.010.500.05
1200Dodecanndndndndnd0.670.03
1093Styrene0.010.016.150.120.010.03nd0.350.02
11662-ethenyl-1,1-dimethyl-3-methylenecyclohexanendnd0.520.03ndndnd
1270Hydrocarbonndndndndnd1.110.08
1278Methyl-(1-methylethenyl)-benzene0.01ndndnd0.120.08nd
Total0.0411.450.540.040.147.56

Mono-di-terpenes
709Triciclene0.02ndnd0.03ndnd
726α-pinene0.240.013.970.090.020.010.380.030.150.02nd
735α-thujenendndnd0.020.06nd
776Camphene0.230.024.550.12nd0.980.050.10nd
842β-pinene0.10ndnd0.270.020.05nd
876Sabinene0.02ndnd0.090.010.03nd
931α-phellandrenendndnd0.010.01nd
971β-mircene0.03nd0.190.030.130.010.410.020.110.01
978α-terpinene0.05nd0.01nd0.060.21nd
1008D-limonene0.133.600.110.080.010.100.010.610.030.650.03
1081Cis-ocimene2.170.04nd3.190.053.300.0819.990.373.380.08
1099Trans-ocimene0.050.01nd0.050.010.140.020.690.040.370.02
1111Cymene0.140.02nd0.030.01nd2.110.030.770.05
1127α-terpinolene0.050.01nd0.010.010.280.01nd
1223Allo ocimene isomerndnd0.010.020.730.03nd
1227Allo-ocimene0.02ndndnd0.100.010.100.02
1494Naphthalenendndndndnd4.850.09
Total3.2512.123.595.4825.3910.23

Sesquiterpenes
1301α-cubebene0.390.132.430.241.910.071.190.06nd1.160.14
1316 -elemene22.010.095.470.184.800.214.390.0318.030.273.720.17
1321 -ylangene0.150.01nd0.640.028.150.020.570.03nd
1328 -copaene2.530.077.390.0411.440.154.200.033.250.052.800.08
1355 -gurjunene0.090.01nd0.390.010.990.02ndnd
1363β-cubebene0.650.05nd0.760.020.370.010.680.03nd
1387Sesquiterpene0.050.02nd0.100.020.090.02nd3.080.08
1390Sesquiterpene1.580.03nd1.000.070.350.06ndnd
1402β-caryophyllene1.800.0311.020.5422.390.186.680.14nd37.320.19
1410Aromadendrene0.160.012.910.083.210.0311.600.08nd1.850.07
1413Sesquiterpene0.220.01ndndnd7.730.24nd
1424Sesquiterpene0.41nd1.070.021.400.030.96nd
1435Sesquiterpene0.16ndndndnd2.120.03
1440Calarene1.150.03nd0.450.010.760.012.190.02nd
1452 -caryophyllenend8.700.2512.000.077.120.17nd7.160.08
1454Sesquiterpene4.260.02nd0.550.01ndndnd
1462Isoledene1.800.04ndnd0.430.013.410.19nd
1469Sesquiterpenendndndnd3.880.21nd
1471 -muurolene0.990.012.950.071.550.021.960.022.740.131.920.07
1476β-cadinene1.800.032.100.082.010.021.800.012.410.082.180.12
1486D-germacrene27.830.177.110.1610.090.0921.130.317.290.151.960.03
1487β-selinenendnd0.830.020.660.02nd1.240.03
1496 -selinenendnd0.510.030.530.011.810.08nd
1499 -elemene3.690.045.760.3112.450.1911.180.123.280.091.130.07
1516Sesquiterpene1.150.07ndndndndnd
1519 -cadinene2.140.075.750.434.700.055.170.118.890.135.780.15
1527Sesquiterpene18.070.16nd1.470.032.730.090.230.01nd
15311,2,3,4,4a,7-naphthalene hexahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)0.10nd0.190.010.240.010.760.020.260.02
1537 -muurolene0.29nd0.220.010.240.021.540.090.460.02
1557Sesquiterpene0.820.02nd0.320.020.250.021.960.040.440.03
1563Calamenenendnd0.050.070.010.190.010.990.02
1612 -calacorenendnd0.020.030.010.080.010.640.01
1642Sesquiterpenendndnd0.050.010.250.022.080.07
1663Humulene oxidendnd0.050.03ndnd
1667Nerolidolndnd0.150.01ndndnd
1691Spathulenolndnd0.260.020.16nd0.840.02
1728 -cadinol0.01ndndnd0.110.020.170.02
Total94.361.5995.5893.9572.2479.3

The Kovats retention index calculated for Rtx-Wax capillary column (25 m 0.25  m 0.25 mm i.d.).
bNormalized amount of volatile compounds (percentage); (peak of volatile compound/total peak area of all volatile compounds) of B. orellana ) obtained from different parts.
cNormalized amount of volatile compounds (percentage); (peak of volatile compound/total peak area of all volatile compounds) of B. orellana living plants using in vivo sampling ( ).
s.d.: ± standard deviation.
nd: not detected.