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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 620346, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/620346
Research Article

Highly Porous Carbon Materials from Biomass by Chemical and Carbonization Method: A Comparison Study

Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Research Group, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 19 June 2012; Accepted 11 August 2012

Academic Editor: Jean-Luc Blin

Copyright © 2013 Wan Nor Roslam Wan Isahak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Porous carbon obtained by dehydrating agent, concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4), from biomass containing high cellulose (filter paper (FP), bamboo waste, and empty fruit bunches (EFB)) shows very high surface area and better thermal behavior. At room temperature (without heating), treatment of H2SO4 removed all the water molecules in the biomass and left the porous carbon without emitting any gaseous byproducts. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis has shown that bamboo-based carbon has good properties with higher surface area (507.8 m2/g), micropore area (393.3 m2/g), and better thermal behavior (compared to FP and EFB) without any activation or treatment process. By acid treatment of biomass, it was shown that higher carbon composition obtained from FP (85.30%), bamboo (77.72%), and EFB (76.55%) is compared to carbon from carbonization process. Under optimal sulfuric acid (20 wt.%) uses, high carbon yield has been achieved for FP (47.85 wt.%), bamboo (62.4 wt.%), and EFB (55.4 wt.%).