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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 671743, 6 pages
Research Article

Determination of Trace Amounts of Palladium in Water Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction

1Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran 19395-3697, Iran
2Quality Control Department, Daana Pharmaceutical Company, Tabriz 501575-5181, Iran

Received 21 June 2012; Accepted 8 October 2012

Academic Editor: Serife Tokalioglu

Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Reza Jamali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A simple, rapid, and powerful microextraction technique was used for determination of palladium (II) ion in water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). The different variables affecting the complexation and extraction conditions such as extraction and disperser solvent type, extraction time, pH, and concentration of chelating agent were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the ranges of 0.05–1 μg L−1 with detection limit of 0.02 μg L−1. The precision (RSD %) for ten replicate determination at 0.2 μg L−1 of palladium was better than 3.5% and the enrichment factor 166.5 was obtained from only 5.0 mL of sample. Under the presence of foreign ions, no significant interference was observed. Finally, accuracy and application of the method were estimated by using test samples of natural waters spiked with different amounts of palladium.