Table 1: The structures of noncyclic analog 1 and calixarene derivatives 234.
= 6–8; R = e.g., H, CH2OH; , = e.g., H, alkyl
= 2–8; R = R′, CONH(OH); = H, R′′ or SO3M; R′, R′′ = lower hydrocarbon; = H or monovalent metal
= H, halogen, acetyl, amino, phosphate, nitro, sulfate, carboxyl, carboxylic, thiocarboxylic, carbamate, thiocarbamate radical, alkyl C1–C60, alkenyl C2–C60, alkynyl C2–C60, cycloalkyl C13-C12, cycloalkyl with at least one ethylenic or acetylenic unsaturation, aryl, naphthyl, aryl(C1–C30 Alkyl), (C1–C30 Alkyl)Aryl, and R1 = R2 = R3 or R1 = R2 R3 or R1 R2 = R3 or R1 R3 = R2 or R1 R3 R2.