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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 804683, 11 pages
Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization, and Crystal Structures of Bis-Imidazolium Salts and Respective Dinuclear Ag(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: In Vitro Anticancer Studies against “Human Colon Cancer” and “Breast Cancer”

1The School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Penang, Malaysia
2EMAN Research and Testing Laboratory, The School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Penang, Malaysia

Received 10 May 2013; Revised 14 July 2013; Accepted 17 July 2013

Academic Editor: Cristina Femoni

Copyright © 2013 Rosenani A. Haque et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper describes synthesis, characterization (NMR, FT-IR, microanalysis, and X-ray crystallography), in vitro anticancer activity of ortho/para-xylyl linked bis-imidazolium salts (4-5) and respective dinuclear Ag(I) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes (6-7). All the compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against human colorectal cancer (HCT 116) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. According to cell viability measurements using MTT assay, all the complexes (6-7) showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against both the cell lines, whereas respective salts (4-5) proved to be inactive. The complexes (6-7) demonstrated significant activity with IC50 values range 5.6–20.3 μM for HCT 116 and 1.12–6.38 μM for MCF-7. 5-Fluorouracil was used as standard drug (IC50 = 5.9 μM) for HCT 116, whereas tamoxifen was used as standard drug for MCF-7 (IC50 = 14 μM) cell line.