- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 840614, 4 pages
The C60(FeCp2)2-Based Cell Proliferation Accelerator
1Laboratory for Superconducting Materials Physics, State Scientific and Production Association “Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of the NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovka Street 19, 220072 Minsk, Belarus
2Department of New Materials, Lykov Institute of the Heat and Mass Transfer of the NAS of Belarus, P. Brovka Street 15, 220072 Minsk, Belarus
3Central Scientific Research Laboratory of the Belarus State Medical University, Dzerjinski Avenue, 83, 220116 Minsk, Belarus
4Institute of Physiology of the NAS of Belarus, Academicheskaya Street 28, 220072 Minsk, Belarus
5School of Chemistry, Manchester University, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Received 22 February 2013; Accepted 4 April 2013
Academic Editor: Mehmet Senel
Copyright © 2013 Andrei Soldatov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
We studied structural and magnetic proprieties of the fulleride C60(FeCp2)2. The influence of fulleride particles on the cell proliferative activity was also investigated. We found that the proliferative activity of the RINmF5 cells increases (53% versus control) in presence of the C60(FeCp2)2 nanosized particles. Moreover, it was registered that the cell culture became multilayered and secreted basophile matrix.
The last two decades studies have showed that fullerene C60 derivatives exhibit a great potential in many fields of biology and medicine . These are UV and radioprotection , specific DNA cleavage , antiviral, antioxidant, and antiamyloid activities [1, 4], allergic response  and angiogenesis  inhibitions, immune stimulating and antitumor effects [7, 8], enhancing effect on neurite outgrowth , and gene delivery . Fiorito and coauthors showed that C-fullerenes, when highly purified, do not stimulate the release of NO by murine macrophage cells in culture, their uptake by human macrophage cells is very low, and they possess a very low toxicity against human macrophage cells . Water-soluble fullerene derivatives protect human keratinocytes from UV-induced cell injuries together with the decreases in intracellular ROS generation and DNA damages  and suppress intracellular lipid accumulation . Ferrocene derivatives in particular ferrocenium salts demonstrate antitumor activity [14, 15]. Authors  proposed possible mechanisms of action of these compounds on tumors, which can be assumed as one-electron oxidation of the ferrocene nuclei to the ferrocenium salts Fc+X−. These salts have relatively low reduction potentials fit for biochemical process to take place .
Many medical applications need that the drug materials possess ferromagnetic properties at room temperature. This allows managing the drug moving by magnetic field. ESR measurements on C60(FeCp2)2 over a wide temperature range (4–290 K) indicate the formation of a low concentration of ions and thus the presence of weak charge transfer interactions of C60 with ferrocene and the possible occurrence of at least a small amount of ferrocenium cations . The ESR spectra show appreciable anisotropy at K, reflecting the freezing of the molecular rotation and the static distortion of the fullerene local symmetry similar to other fulleride salts. Moreover, the temperature variation of the ESR spectra at low temperatures ( K) suggests the presence of antiferromagnetic spin-spin interactions. A major contribution of iron ions and ferromagnetic particles is identified at K that may account for the dc magnetic response of the compound. These allow us to believe that ferrocene fullerides will have a good perspective for biomedical applications.
In this work, we studied structural and magnetic proprieties of the fulleride C60(FeCp2)2. The influence of fulleride particles on the cell proliferative activity was also investigated.
Single crystalline specimens of C60(FeCp2)2 were grown from the solution of a stoichiometric mixture of C60 and FeCp2 in benzene by slow evaporation at 300 K as described in .
In order to study the influence of the fulleride presence on cell proliferation, we chose the cell line rin-mf5 (cell derivatives of the human insular tissue). These cells possess the large receptor field and high sensitivity against an attack of no specified cell toxins. These properties make them suitable targets for biotropic agents. Under the experimental conditions studied, substances were introduced directly into culture medium of the cells rin-mf5, grown in the RPMI 1640 medium. The results were examined in comparison with the cell amount grown in the same conditions without any additive. Data simulation was carried out with the “StatOlympus3X” software.
Magnetic measurements of powdered crystals were performed on the magnetometer Quantum Design MPMS XL 7T. X-ray analysis was carried out on the DRON-3 diffractometer.
3. Results and Discussion
As grown single crystals of C60(FeCp2)2 have pine-like shape (see Figure 1) and a brown color, no impurities have been detected by X-ray analysis. C60(FeCp2)2 was synthesized first by Crane with coauthors . This matter has triclinic structure with space group of Pī. Our X-ray analysis data is in agreement with results of .
Large crystals can be used as a substrate for adhesion and growth of cells (see Figure 2(b)). At the same time, the crystals with size of more the 10 μm do not have reliable influence on the proliferative activity of the cells in monolayer culture (Figure 2(c)). After 24 hours of incubation, the cell amount in the experimental samples () was larger (but less than 40%) than that observed in control samples. The most intelligible effect of the proliferative activity was found in presence of the C60(FeCp2)2 nanoparticles. The proliferative activity of the rin-mf5 cells increases (53% versus control shown at Figure 2(a)) in presence of the C60(FeCp2)2 nanosized particles (500 particles/cm2). Moreover, it was registered that at the places where the fulleride particles are accumulated, the cell culture became multilayered and secreted basophile matrix (see Figure 2(d)).
To our opinion, it can be related to the particle size of the fulleride nanocrystals C60(FeCp2)2, which probably contain the Fc+ salt. The possible mechanism of the proliferation acceleration consists in nonspecific endocytosis of fulleride nanoparticles by rin-mf5 cells. Due to relatively low reduction potentials Fc+ cation that is suitable for intracellular biochemical process to take place, the C60(FeCp2)2 nanoparticle can be a catalyst of the intracellular regulatory systems and accelerate the rin-mf5 proliferation.
Magnetic measurements were performed by heating from 2 K up to room temperature under the magnetic field of 1 T. The results do not confirm the existence any ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic ordering of C60(FeCp2)2 as described earlier in the investigated temperature interval. As shown in Figure 3, C60(FeCp2)2 is paramagnetic at liquid helium temperature. During the heating, it was transforming to the diamagnetic state near 60 K and was not changing the magnetic state up to room temperature.
C60(FeCp2)2 does not possess any ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic ordering from 2 K up to room temperature.
The proliferative activity of the RINmF5 cells in presence of the C60(FeCp2) 2 nanoparticles increases (53% versus control). It is proposed that the proliferation rate depends on the fulleride particle size. The possible mechanism of the proliferation acceleration consists in nonspecific endocytosis of fulleride nanoparticles by rin-mf5 cells. Due to relatively low reduction potentials Fc+ cation that is suitable for intracellular biochemical process to take place, the C60(FeCp2)2 nanoparticle can be a catalyst of the intracellular regulatory systems and accelerate the rin-mf5 proliferation.
This work is supported by the “Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology” subprogram of Belarus (Grant no. 2.2.03) and “Convergence” program of Belarus (Grant no. 3.2.06).
- H. L. Ma and X. J. Liang, “Fullerenes as unique nanopharmaceuticals for disease treatment,” Science China Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 2233–2340, 2010.
- C. A. Theriot, R. C. Casey, V. C. Moore et al., “Dendro[C60]fullerene DF-1 provides radioprotection to radiosensitive mammalian cells,” Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 437–445, 2010.
- R. D. Bolskar, A. F. Benedetto, L. O. Husebo et al., “First soluble M@C60 derivatives provide enhanced access to metallofullerenes and permit In vivo evaluation of Gd@C60[C(COOH)2]10 as a MRI contrast agent,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 18, pp. 5471–5478, 2003.
- S. S. Ali, J. I. Hardt, K. L. Quick et al., “A biologically effective fullerene (C60) derivative with superoxide dismutase mimetic properties,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1191–1202, 2004.
- J. J. Ryan, H. R. Bateman, A. Stover et al., “Fullerene nanomaterials inhibit the allergic response,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 665–672, 2007.
- H. Meng, G. Xing, B. Sun et al., “Potent angiogenesis inhibition by the particulate form of fullerene derivatives,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 2773–2783, 2010.
- J. Zhu, Z. Ji, J. Wang et al., “Tumor-inhibitory effect and immunomodulatory activity of fullerol C60(OH)x,” Small, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1168–1175, 2008.
- Y. Y. Xu, J. D. Zhu, K. Xiang, Y. K. Li, R. H. Sun, and J. Ma, “Synthesis and immunomodulatory activity of fullerene-tuftsin conjugates,” Biomaterials, vol. 32, no. 36, pp. 9940–9949, 2011.
- H. Tsumoto, S. Kawahara, Y. Fujisawa et al., “Syntheses of water-soluble fullerene derivatives and their enhancing effect on neurite outgrowth in NGF-treated PC12 cells,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1948–1952, 2010.
- R. Maeda-Mamiya, E. Noiri, H. Isobe et al., “In vivo gene delivery by cationic tetraamino fullerene,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 12, pp. 5339–5344, 2010.
- S. Fiorito, A. Serafino, F. Andreola, and P. Bernier, “Effects of fullerenes and single-wall carbon nanotubes on murine and human macrophages,” Carbon, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1100–1105, 2006.
- Y. Saitoh, A. Miyanishi, H. Mizuno et al., “Super-highly hydroxylated fullerene derivative protects human keratinocytes from UV-induced cell injuries together with the decreases in intracellular ROS generation and DNA damages,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 2011.
- S. Yasukazu, M. Hiromi, X. Li, H. Sayuri, K. Ken, and M. Nobuhiko, “Polyhydroxylated fullerene C60(OH)44 suppresses intracellular lipid accumulation together with repression of intracellular superoxide anion radicals and subsequent PPARγ2 expression during spontaneous differentiation of OP9 preadipocytes into adipocytes,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 366, no. 1-2, pp. 191–1200, 2012.
- P. Kopf-Maier, H. Kopf, and E. W. Neuse, “Ferrocenium salts—the first antitumor iron compounds,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 446–447, 1984.
- P. Kopf-Maier, H. Kopf, and E. W. Neuse, “Ferricenium complexes: a new type of water-soluble antitumor agent,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 336–340, 1984.
- V. N. Babin, P. M. Raevskii, K. G. Shitkov, L. V. Snegur, and S. Y. Nekrasov, “Antitumor activity of metallocenes,” Mendeleev Chemistry Journal, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 17–23, 1995.
- A. J. Deeming, “Mononuclear Iron Compounds with η2–η6 Hydrocarbon Ligands,” in Comprehensive organometallic chemistry, G. Wilkinson, F. G. A. Stone, and E. W. Abel, Eds., p. 481, Pergamon Press, 1982.
- N. Guskos, A. G. Soldatov, G. Zolnierkiewicz, V. Likodimos, and S. Glenis, “Spin dynamics and charge transfer in C60-2ferrocene studied by electron spin resonance,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 354, no. 35-39, pp. 4334–4337, 2008.
- J. D. Crane, P. B. Hitchcock, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, and D. R. M. Walton, “Preparation and characterisation of C60(ferrocene)2,” Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, no. 24, pp. 1764–1765, 1992.