Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2013, Article ID 864926, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/864926
Research Article

Controlling Foam Morphology of Poly(methyl methacrylate) via Surface Chemistry and Concentration of Silica Nanoparticles and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Process Parameters

Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Rensselaer Nanotechnology Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA

Received 16 February 2013; Accepted 29 April 2013

Academic Editor: Ignacio Gracia Fernández

Copyright © 2013 Deniz Rende et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. A. Shafi, K. Joshi, and R. W. Flumerfelt, “Bubble size distributions in freely expanded polymer foams,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 635–644, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. L. Everitt, O. G. Harlen, and H. J. Wilson, “Competition and interaction of polydisperse bubbles in polymer foams,” Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, vol. 137, no. 1–3, pp. 60–71, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Klempner, V. Sendijarevic, and R. Aseeva, Handbook of Polymeric Foams and Foam Technology, Hanser Gardner Publications, Kempten, Germany, 2004.
  4. L. J. Lee, C. Zeng, X. Cao, X. Han, J. Shen, and G. Xu, “Polymer nanocomposite foams,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 65, no. 15-16, pp. 2344–2363, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. A. Banyay, M. M. Shaltout, H. Tiwari, and B. V. Mehta, “Polymer and composite foam for hydrogen storage application,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 191, no. 1–3, pp. 102–105, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Z. Liu, G. Bai, Y. Huang et al., “Reflection and absorption contributions to the electromagnetic interference shielding of single-walled carbon nanotube/polyurethane composites,” Carbon, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 821–827, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Wang, G. A. Sotzing, and R. A. Weiss, “Conductive polymer foams as sensors for volatile amines,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 375–377, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. X. Yan, K. Dai, Z. D. Xiang, Z. M. Li, X. Ji, and W. Q. Zhang, “Electrical conductivity and major mechanical and thermal properties of carbon nanotube-filled polyurethane foams,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 3014–3019, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. C. Chiu, S. M. Lai, C. M. Wong, and C. H. Chang, “Properties of calcium carbonate filled and unfilled polystyrene foams prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 2276–2284, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Mori, H. Hayashi, M. Okamoto, S. Yamasaki, and H. Hayami, “Foam processing of polyethylene ionomers with supercritical CO2,” Composites A, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1708–1716, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Antunes, V. Realinho, A. B. Martínez, E. Solórzano, M. A. Rodríguez-Pérez, and J. I. Velasco, “Heat transfer of mineral-filled polypropylene foams,” Defect and Diffusion Forum, vol. 297–301, pp. 990–995, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Q. Wu, N. Zhou, and D. Zhan, “Effect of processing parameters and vibrating field on poly(Vinyl chloride) microcellular foam morphology,” Polymer, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 851–859, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. W. Zhai, J. Yu, L. Wu, W. Ma, and J. He, “Heterogeneous nucleation uniformizing cell size distribution in microcellular nanocomposites foams,” Polymer, vol. 47, no. 21, pp. 7580–7589, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. L. Chen, B. Goren, R. Ozisik, and L. Schadler, “Controlling bubble density in MWNT/polymer nanocomposite foams by MWNT surface modification,” Composites in Science and Technology, vol. 72, pp. 190–196, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  15. D. Eaves, Handbook of Polymer Foams, Smithers Rapra Press, Shawbury, UK, 2004.
  16. Y. W. Chang, D. Lee, and S. Y. Bae, “Preparation of polyethylene-octene elastromer/clay nanocomposite and microcellular foam processed in supercritical carbon dioxide,” Polymer International, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 184–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Wee, D. G. Seong, and J. R. Youn, “Processing of microcellular nanocomposite foams by using a supercritical fluid,” Fibers and Polymers, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 160–169, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. S. Ramesh, D. H. Rasmussen, and G. A. Campbell, “Heterogeneous nucleation of microcellular foams assisted by the survival of microvoids in polymers containing low glass transition particles. Part I: mathematical modeling and numerical simulation,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 1685–1697, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. P. Handa and Z. Zhang, “Novel stress-induced nucleation and foaming process and its applications in making homogeneous foams, anisotropic foams, and multilayered foams,” Cellular Polymers, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 77–91, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. N. Leung, A. Wong, L. C. Wang, and C. B. Park, “Mechanism of extensional stress-induced cell formation in polymeric foaming processes with the presence of nucleating agents,” The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 63, pp. 187–198, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  21. K. Goren, L. Chen, L. S. Schadler, and R. Ozisik, “Influence of nanoparticle surface chemistry and size on supercritical carbon dioxide processed nanocomposite foam morphology,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 420–427, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Chen, R. Ozisik, and L. S. Schadler, “The influence of carbon nanotube aspect ratio on the foam morphology of MWNT/PMMA nanocomposite foams,” Polymer, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 2368–2375, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Chen, L. S. Schadler, and R. Ozisik, “An experimental and theoretical investigation of the compressive properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposite foams,” Polymer, vol. 52, no. 13, pp. 2899–2909, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. H. Kim, S. J. Choi, J. M. Kim, M. S. Han, W. N. Kim, and K. T. Bang, “Effects of organoclay on the thermal insulating properties of rigid polyurethane foams blown by environmentally friendly blowing agents,” Macromolecular Research, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 676–681, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Jo and H. E. Naguib, “Effect of nanoclay and foaming conditions on the mechanical properties of HDPE-clay nanocomposite foams,” Journal of Cellular Plastics, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 111–121, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. M. Seraji, M. K. Razavi Aghjeh, M. Davari, M. Salami Hosseini, and S. Khelgati, “Effect of clay dispersion on the cell structure of LDPE/clay nanocomposite foams,” Polymer Composites, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1095–1105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. Zeng, X. Han, L. J. Lee, K. W. Koelling, and D. L. Tomasko, “Polymer-clay nanocomposite foams prepared using carbon dioxide,” Advanced Materials, vol. 15, no. 20, pp. 1743–1747, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. H. Nam, P. Maiti, M. Okamoto et al., “Foam processing and cellular structure of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites,” Polymer Engineering and Science, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1907–1918, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. G. Zheng, Y. H. Lee, and C. B. Park, “Use of nanoparticles for improving the foaming behaviors of linear PP,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 2972–2979, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. C. Saha, M. E. Kabir, and S. Jeelani, “Enhancement in thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane foam infused with nanoparticles,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 479, no. 1-2, pp. 213–222, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. H. Lee, M. Kontopoulou, and C. B. Park, “Effect of nanosilica on the co-continuous morphology of polypropylene/polyolefin elastomer blends,” Polymer, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1147–1155, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. Zhai, C. B. Park, and M. Kontopoulou, “Nanosilica addition dramatically improves the cell morphology and expansion ratio of polypropylene heterophasic copolymer foams blown in continuous extrusion,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 7282–7289, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Siripurapu, J. M. DeSimone, S. A. Khan, and R. J. Spontak, “Controlled foaming of polymer films through restricted surface diffusion and the addition of nanosilica particles or CO2-philic surfactants,” Macromolecules, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 2271–2280, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. M. Yeh, K. C. Chang, C. W. Peng et al., “Effect of vinyl-modified silica and raw silica particles on the properties of as-prepared polymer-silica nanocomposite foams,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 6297–6305, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Sauceau, C. Nikitine, E. Rodier, and J. Fages, “Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide on polystyrene extrusion,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 367–373, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. I. Velasco, M. Antunes, V. Realinho, and M. Ardanuy, “Characterization of rigid polypropylene-based microcellular foams produced by batch foaming processes,” Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 51, pp. 2120–2128, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  37. M. A. Treece and J. P. Oberhauser, “Processing of polypropylene-clay nanocomposites: single-screw extrusion with in-line supercritical carbon dioxide feed versus twin-screw extrusion,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 884–892, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Urbanczyk, M. Alexandre, C. Detrembleur, C. Jérôme, and C. Calberg, “Extrusion foaming of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/clay nanocomposites using supercritical CO2,” Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, vol. 295, no. 10, pp. 915–922, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Sauceau, J. Fages, A. Common, C. Nikitine, and E. Rodier, “New challenges in polymer foaming: a review of extrusion processes assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 749–766, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. P. Nalawade, F. Picchioni, and L. P. B. M. Janssen, “Supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent for processing polymer melts: processing aspects and applications,” Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 19–43, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. X. Dai, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, G. Yang, J. Xu, and B. Han, “High damping property of microcellular polymer prepared by friendly environmental approach,” Journal of Supercritical Fluids, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 259–267, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. Chen, D. Rende, L. S. Schadler, and R. Ozisik, “Polymer nanocomposite foams,” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 1, pp. 3837–3850, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  43. J. Shen, C. Zeng, and L. J. Lee, “Synthesis of polystyrene-carbon nanofibers nanocomposite foams,” Polymer, vol. 46, no. 14, pp. 5218–5224, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. Athanasopoulos, A. Baltopoulos, M. Matzakou, A. Vavouliotis, and V. Kostopoulos, “Electrical conductivity of polyurethane/MWCNT nanocomposite foams,” Polymer Composites, vol. 33, pp. 1302–1312, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  45. S. Gross, D. Camozzo, V. Di Noto, L. Armelao, and E. Tondello, “PMMA: a key macromolecular component for dielectric low-κ hybrid inorganic-organic polymer films,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 673–696, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Abramoff, P. Magelhaes, and S. Ram, “Image processing with imageJ,” Biophotonics International, vol. 11, pp. 36–42, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  48. A. Kohno, N. Sakai, S. Matsui, and M. Nakagawa, “Enhanced durability of antisticking layers by recoating a silica surface with fluorinated alkylsilane derivatives by chemical vapor surface modification,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 49, no. 6, Article ID 06GL12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Parker, R. T. Schneider, R. W. Siegel et al., “Molecular probe technique for determining local thermal transitions: the glass transition at Silica/PMMA nanocomposite interfaces,” Polymer, vol. 51, no. 21, pp. 4891–4898, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. T. Zhuravlev, “Surface characterization of amorphous silica-a review of work from the former USSR,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 71–90, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. V. Kumar and N. Suh, “A process for making microcellular thermoplastic parts,” Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 30, pp. 1323–1329, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  52. T. Sarbu, T. Styranec, and E. J. Beckman, “Non-fluorous polymers with very high solubility in supercritical CO2 down to low pressures,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6783, pp. 165–168, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Alessi, A. Cortesi, I. Kikic, and F. Vecchione, “Plasticization of polymers with supercritical carbon dioxide: experimental determination of glass-transition temperatures,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 2189–2193, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. I. Kikic, F. Vecchione, P. Alessi, A. Cortesi, F. Eva, and N. Elvassore, “Polymer plasticization using supercritical carbon dioxide: experiment and modeling,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 3022–3029, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. V. Di Noto, K. Vezzù, G. A. Giffin, F. Conti, and A. Bertucco, “Effect of high pressure CO2 on the structure of PMMA: a FT-IR study,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 115, pp. 13519–13525, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  56. S. Lee and N. Ramesh, Polymeric Foams: Mechanisms and Materials, CRC Press, 2004.
  57. D. L. Tomasko, H. Li, D. Liu et al., “A review of CO2 applications in the processing of polymers,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 42, no. 25, pp. 6431–6456, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. A. Kasturirangan, C. A. Koh, and A. S. Teja, “Glass-transition temperatures in CO2 + polymer systems: modeling and experiment,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 158–162, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus