Journal of Chemistry / 2013 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

Melissopalynological and Volatile Compounds Analysis of Buckwheat Honey from Different Geographical Origins and Their Role in Botanical Determination

Table 4

Volatile compounds identified in investigated honey samples expressed as percentages. B1–B6: buckwheat honey from Italy (Teglio-Valtellina); B7: buckwheat honey from Russia; B8 and B9: buckwheat honey from Poland; B10: Buckwheat honey from Russia.

CompoundsRTaIdentificationbSample code
B1cB2cB3cB4cB5cB6cB7dB8dB9dB10d

Alcohols
Ethanol3.97MS, LRI14.859.0512.255.705.187.658.3911.4112.006.36
2,3-Butanedione4.98MS, LRI0.070.090.060.070.070.090.420.130.112.78
2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol7.39MS, LRI0.030.040.020.350.420.480.27nd0.05nd
1-Butanol12.67MS, LRI0.360.490.300.090.110.130.080.170.190.06
2-Methylbutanol14.46MS, LRI0.010.010.010.050.060.030.020.030.030.08
2-Methylpropanol15.02MS, LRI0.010.020.01ndnd0.010.02ndndnd
3-Methylbutanol 15.41MS, LRI0.871.170.720.951.121.291.031.000.920.90
2-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol16.78MS, LRI0.070.090.050.230.280.320.42nd0.030.17
3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol16.94MS, LRI0.020.020.020.030.030.040.050.040.020.01
2-Methylbutenol19.09MS, LRI0.010.010.010.030.030.03ndnd0.03nd

Total16.3011.0013.457.507.2910.0710.6812.9513.3810.36

Phenols
2-Caren-10-al29.28MS, LRI0.010.010.010.030.060.070.05ndnd0.14
p-Cymen-8-ol30.46MS, LRI0.030.040.030.010.010.010.050.030.050.07
Phenol32.53MS, LRI0.030.040.020.010.010.020.050.060.04nd
p-Cresol33.26MS, LRI0.190.260.160.010.020.030.200.010.09nd
Thymol34.34MS, LRI0.010.01ndndndndndndndnd

Total0.270.360.210.060.110.120.350.110.180.21

Ketones
2-Butanone6.61MS, LRIndndnd0.330.780.700.35ndnd0.08
3-Hydroxy-2-butanone 17.65MS, LRI1.061.440.880.440.520.601.090.801.231.26
Hydroxyacetone18.08MS, LRI2.363.181.951.501.762.022.151.302.231.40
2-Hydroxy-3-pentanone19.90MS, LRI0.020.030.020.030.040.040.040.040.020.03
1-Hydroxy-2-butanone20.29MS, LRI0.090.120.070.320.380.440.240.020.150.02
2-Methyl-butyrolactone25.20MS, LRI0.450.610.370.090.110.121.050.180.08nd
4-Oxoisophorone27.42MS, LRI0.060.040.050.050.060.070.280.130.080.03

Total4.526.063.733.454.454.946.022.628.423.50

Free fatty acid
Acetic acid22.14MS, LRI9.3512.637.7211.2813.2515.2220.1426.8020.4831.80
Formic acid23.36MS, LRI6.658.985.49nd13.250.14nd6.295.904.41
Propanoic acid24.28MS, LRI0.390.520.3420.300.360.411.040.420.390.84
Isobutyric acid24.95MS, LRI0.490.670.410.240.280.320.350.500.522.08
Butanoic acid26.19MS, LRI2.703.642.220.630.740.851.991.013.011.55
2-Propanoic acid26.28MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndnd
Isovaleric acid27.05MS, LRI10.4914.178.663.023.554.083.357.0011.263.96
Pentanoic acid28.35MS, LRI1.461.981.210.150.180.201.510.181.620.66
2-Butenoic acid28.95MS, LRI0.020.030.020.020.010.010.220.010.010.11
3-Methylpentanoic acid29.40MS, LRI0.080.110.070.050.060.070.110.080.050.07
4-Methylpentanoic acid29.58MS, LRI0.040.050.030.020.020.030.410.030.030.01
4-Pentanoic acid30.84MS, LRI0.020.030.020.010.010.030.050.030.020.01
Benzyl nitrile31.63MS, LRI0.010.010.010.010.010.010.01nd0.01nd
Heptanoic acid31.96MS, LRI0.010.020.010.030.030.040.020.070.020.12
Octanoic acid33.05MS, LRI0.020.020.010.030.030.030.030.040.020.14
Nonanoic acid34.12MS, LRI0.010.050.01ndndndnd0.140.050.09
Benzoic acid37.83MS, LRI0.020.020.010.030.030.030.010.090.040.08

Total31.7642.9126.2015.8018.5521.4629.2442.6743.4345.93

Esters
Ethyl acetate3.04MS, LRI0.040.060.040.160.180.170.520.500.53nd
Butanoic acid 3-methyl-ethyl ester8.60MS, LRIndnd0.01ndndndndndndnd
Ethyl lactate19.65MS, LRI0.030.040.020.010.010.010.02nd0.03nd
Vinyl 2,2-dimethyl pentanoate21.70MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.13
Propylene carbonate30.14MS, LRI0.01nd0.01ndndndndndndnd

Total0.080.100.080.170.200.180.540.500.560.13

Aldehydes
Acetaldehyde1.75MS, LRI0.100.130.080.710.840.960.090.390.170.54
Butanal2.86MS, LRI0.751.010.620.020.050.080.610.200.530.02
2-Methylbutanal 3.37MS, LRI1.031.390.850.570.670.771.610.010.590.02
3-Methylbutanal 3.45MS, LRI6.709.055.533.293.864.446.764.422.46nd
Pentanal4.79MS, LRI0.160.220.130.050.050.090.200.700.840.1
Hexanal9.01MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.03
2-Pentanal11.54MS, LRIndndnd0.080.090.08ndndndnd
Heptanal14.09MS, LRIndndndndndnd0.07ndnd0.05
Nonanal21.00MS, LRI0.010.01nd0.020.010.020.020.170.070.49
Benzaldehyde23.89MS, LRI0.210.290.180.210.240.280.210.600.294.77
Lilac aldehyde A24.88MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndnd
Lilac aldehyde B25.37MS, LRIndndnd0.020.030.03nd0.040.05nd
Benzeneacetaldehyde26.42MS, LRI0.610.820.500.060.070.080.06nd0.080.09
Nicotinaldehyde27.61MS, LRIndndnd0.050.050.050.03ndnd0.44
2-Methyl-2-octenedial29.18MS, LRIndndnd0.030.060.070.05ndnd0.15
Phenylacetaldehyde31.31MS, LRIndndndndndnd0.05ndnd0.05
2-Pyrrolecarboxaldehyde32.69MS, LRI0.180.250.150.300.350.330.710.120.10nd
Cinnamaldehyde32.83MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndnd

Total9.7513.168.045.416.377.3010.486.655.186.63

Furans
Furan2.19MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.68
Methylfuran3.15MS, LRIndndndndndnd0.28ndnd1.19
Dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone17.04MS, LRI0.010.020.010.030.030.040.590.010.100.01
Furfural22.61MS, LRI3.294.093.391.221.500.144.911.295.900.96
1-(2-Furanyl)-ethanone23.54MS, LRI0.480.640.390.680.800.920.790.080.42nd
5-Methylfurfural25.03MS, LRI0.040.040.040.160.190.221.250.500.520.05
Dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone25.65MS, LRIndndndndndnd0.030.074.21nd
Dihydro-3-methyl-2(3H)-furanone25.72MS, LRIndndnd1.752.061.801.31ndnd0.68
2(5H)-Furanone28.49MS, LRI0.300.400.240.280.330.380.840.020.290.03
4,5-Dimethyl-2-furaldehyde32.19MS, LRI0.050.060.040.090.110.130.150.040.03nd

Total3.695.253.722.314.232.709.371.9311.053.60

Terpenes
Verbenene10.74MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.03
-Phellandrene12.91MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.03
-Terpinene13.62MS, LRIndndndndndndnd0.040.010.07
-Terpinene16.45MS, LRIndndnd0.020.020.010.03ndnd0.07
Cymene17.24MS, LRIndndndndndnd0.65ndnd0.08
cis-Linalool oxide22.24MS, LRI0.670.900.554.45.185.953.316.8011.502.15
trans-linalool oxide22.87MS, LRI0.460.620.381.23nd1.663.230.280.25nd
Menthofuran23.06MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.25
Linalool24.70MS, LRI0.130.170.110.110.130.150.130.200.290.35
Damascenone29.96MS, LRIndndnd0.010.280.020.09ndndnd
-Terpinolene31.77MS, LRI0.010.010.01ndndndndndnd0.24
Carvacrol34.66MS, LRInd0.06ndndndndndndnd0.09

Total1.261.771.045.775.617.787.437.3212.053.36

Miscellaneous
Dimethyl sulfide1.93MS, LRI1.942.611.600.760.890.830.900.621.160.92
Eugenol34.45MS, LRI0.01ndndndndndndndndnd

Total1.952.611.600.760.890.830.900.621.160.92

Retention time; bMS: mass spectrum tentatively identified using NIST 05 and Wiley 275 libraries; LRI: linear retention index.
cNormalized amount of volatile compounds (percentage) (peak of volatile compound/total peak area of all volatile compounds) of buckwheat honeys from Italy (Valtellina).
dNormalized amount of volatile compounds (percentage) (peak of volatile compound/total peak area of all volatile compounds) of buckwheat honeys from Russia, Poland, and Nepal.
nd: not detected.

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