Journal of Chemistry / 2013 / Article / Tab 5

Research Article

Melissopalynological and Volatile Compounds Analysis of Buckwheat Honey from Different Geographical Origins and Their Role in Botanical Determination

Table 5

Volatile compounds identified in investigated honey samples expressed as percentages. M1–M3: multifloral honeys from Italy (Teglio-Valtellina); M4–M6: multifloral honeys from Italy (Valtellina); A1–A3: acacia honeys from Italy (Valtellina); R1–R3: rhododendron honeys from Italy (Valtellina).

CompoundsRTaIdentificationbSample code
M1cM2cM3cM4cM5cM6cA1cA2cA3cR1cR2cR3c

Alcohols
Ethanol3.97MS, LRI25.8315.016.6630.8228.2034.4813.1115.699.5440.5532.6038.42
2,3-Butanedione4.98MS, LRI2.97nd0.21nd0.780.390.480.270.600.250.300.22
2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol7.39MS, LRI0.030.05ndnd0.100.050.04nd0.070.070.060.08
1-Butanol12.67MS, LRI0.080.060.080.50.680.410.450.110.780.380.250.68
2-Methylbutanol14.46MS, LRI0.050.020.040.010.030.020.040.020.060.030.020.05
2-Methylpropanol15.02MS, LRIndnd0.05ndndnd0.020.020.01ndndnd
3-Methylbutanol 15.41MS, LRI0.580.470.560.390.510.550.540.250.920.510.350.60
2-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol16.78MS, LRI0.140.060.100.010.100.090.100.070.140.120.080.10
3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol16.94MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
2-Methylbutenol19.09MS, LRI0.020.010.040.010.02nd0.020.030.020.01nd0.01

Total29.7015.687.7431.7330.4235.9914.8016.4612.1441.9233.6640.16

Phenols
2-Caren-10-al29.28MS, LRI0.09nd0.190.10ndndndndndndndnd
p-Cymen-8-ol30.46MS, LRI0.060.050.080.050.100.07ndndnd0.030.030.02
Phenol32.53MS, LRI0.040.030.040.010.020.010.01nd0.020.020.050.01
p-Cresol33.26MS, LRI0.010.01ndnd0.010.010.010.010.01ndnd0.01
Thymol34.34MS, LRInd0.01ndnd0.020.010.010.010.010.020.03nd

Total0.200.100.310.160.150.100.030.020.0430.070.110.04

Ketones
2-Butanone6.61MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
3-Hydroxy-2-butanone 17.65MS, LRI1.041.470.621.440.440.841.101.721.500.470.490.44
Hydroxyacetone18.08MS, LRI1.020.721.621.160.71nd2.921.272.571.652.551.56
2-Hydroxy-3-pentanone19.90MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
1-Hydroxy-2-butanone20.29MS, LRI0.040.07nd0.010.100.050.050.020.100.110.080.10
2-Methyl-butyrolactone25.20MS, LRInd0.05nd0.150.270.210.160.140.130.060.050.04
4-Oxoisophorone27.42MS, LRI0.160.070.060.040.01nd0.020.010.010.060.01nd

Total2.362.492.352.871.681.214.403.264.513.293.552.48

Free fatty acid
Acetic acid22.14MS, LRI27.431.3230.4818.5040.6432.5648.1241.4044.8325.6321.5329.74
Formic acid23.36MS, LRI2.583.133.0312.085.496.298.295.565.037.5312.256.82
Propanoic acid24.28MS, LRI0.720.750.790.160.410.780.710.430.990.400.410.40
Isobutyric acid24.95MS, LRI1.001.201.801.222.301.261.300.491.110.490.320.35
Butanoic acid26.19MS, LRI1.301.261.340.430.460.941.221.301.201.201.501.90
2-Propanoic acid26.28MS, LRI0.050.020.08nd0.01nd0.050.020.080.010.01nd
Isovaleric acid27.05MS, LRI2.731.703.741.411.472.943.503.173.821.711.431.99
Pentanoic acid28.35MS, LRI0.430.030.230.070.180.180.240.250.28nd0.02nd
2-Butenoic acid28.95MS, LRI0.020.030.02nd0.01ndndndnd0.020.010.03
3-Methylpentanoic acid29.40MS, LRI0.040.020.040.010.030.070.100.080.100.110.020.10
4-Methylpentanoic acid29.58MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
4-Pentanoic acid30.84MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
Benzyl nitrile31.63MS, LRInd0.02ndndnd0.01ndndnd0.020.03nd
Heptanoic acid31.96MS, LRI0.100.080.100.020.050.040.100.110.180.120.110.14
Octanoic acid33.05MS, LRI0.070.030.03nd0.010.010.030.040.040.010.02nd
Nonanoic acid34.12MS, LRI0.030.020.03nd0.02nd0.02nd0.020.010.01nd
Benzoic acid37.83MS, LRI0.070.080.070.030.050.040.070.070.070.080.080.08

Total36.5439.6941.7833.9351.1345.1263.7553.3757.7637.3437.7541.55

Esters
Ethyl acetate3.04MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.040.080.05
Butanoic acid 3-methyl-ethyl ester8.60MS, LRInd0.020.010.05nd0.03ndnd0.03ndndnd
Ethyl lactate19.65MS, LRI0.030.04nd0.01nd0.01nd0.02nd0.02nd0.04
Vinyl 2,2-dimethyl pentanoate21.70MS, LRI0.130.100.25nd0.1ndndndndndndnd
Propylene carbonate30.14MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.010.020.01

Total0.160.160.260.060.100.04nd0.020.030.070.100.10

Aldehydes
Acetaldehyde1.75MS, LRI0.460.520.400.910.410.45ndndnd0.370.200.46
Butanal2.86MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
2-Methylbutanal 3.37MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
3-Methylbutanal 3.45MS, LRIndndndndndndndndnd0.050.100.05
Pentanal4.79MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
Hexanal9.01MS, LRIndndndndndnd0.04nd0.07ndnd0.01
2-Pentanal11.54MS, LRIndndndndndnd0.010.01ndndndnd
Heptanal14.09MS, LRI0.030.010.02nd0.030.02ndndndndndnd
Nonanal21.00MS, LRI0.060.020.050.05ndnd0.080.15ndndndnd
Benzaldehyde23.89MS, LRI1.191.060.700.400.960.530.860.601.111.701.101.30
Lilac aldehyde A24.88MS, LRI1.001.200.800.221.301.260.020.020.01ndndnd
Lilac aldehyde B25.37MS, LRI0.100.08nd0.020.060.040.070.090.070.160.030.10
Benzeneacetaldehyde26.42MS, LRInd0.01nd0.010.020.040.050.040.070.060.030.04
Nicotinaldehyde27.61MS, LRI0.500.340.60nd0.04ndndndnd0.220.100.14
2-Methyl-2-octenedial29.18MS, LRI0.100.030.100.010.100.11ndndnd0.020.030.01
Phenylacetaldehyde31.31MS, LRI0.03nd0.07ndndndnd0.02ndndndnd
2-Pyrrolecarbaldehyde32.69MS, LRInd0.03nd0.01nd0.010.020.020.010.010.02nd
Cinnamaldehyde32.83MS, LRI0.03nd0.020.030.050.010.01nd0.02nd0.02nd

Total3.503.302.761.652.972.471.160.961.372.591.632.11

Furans
Furan2.19MS, LRI0.18nd0.03nd0.02ndndndndndndnd
Methylfuran3.15MS, LRI0.810.270.300.250.15ndndndnd0.130.100.25
Dihydro-2-methyl-3(2H)-furanone17.04MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
Furfural22.61MS, LRI1.421.711.131.071.302.193.412.064.772.562.532.50
1-(2-Furanyl)-ethanone23.54MS, LRI0.050.10nd0.050.100.080.100.050.150.50.080.01
5-Methylfurfural25.03MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
Dihydro-5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone25.65MS, LRI0.75nd0.090.010.050.030.050.050.05ndnd0.01
Dihydro-3-methyl-2(3H)-furanone25.72MS, LRI0.400.380.700.040.090.07ndndnd0.440.870.50
2(5H)-Furanone28.49MS, LRInd0.03ndnd0.040.02ndnd0.020.010.02nd
4,5-Dimethyl-2-furaldehyde32.19MS, LRInd0.02nd0.020.030.020.040.020.050.070.080.05

Total3.562.412.251.391.682.333.502.134.893.253.603.31

Terpenes
Verbenene10.74MS, LRIndndndnd0.030.01ndndndndndnd
-Phellandrene12.91MS, LRI0.03nd0.05nd0.03ndndndndndndnd
-Terpinene13.62MS, LRI0.060.010.030.040.02ndnd0.050.07ndndnd
-Terpinene16.45MS, LRIndndndndndndnd0.01ndndndnd
Cymene17.24MS, LRI0.050.010.05nd0.01ndndndndndndnd
cis-Linalool oxide22.24MS, LRIndndndndndndndndndndndnd
trans-Linalool oxide22.87MS, LRI0.190.100.250.03nd0.010.110.080.040.140.060.10
Menthofuran23.06MS, LRI0.26nd0.50nd0.10ndndndndndndnd
Linalool24.70MS, LRI0.750.200.230.120.18nd0.470.650.200.910.120.67
Damascenone29.96MS, LRI0.020.02nd0.01nd0.01nd0.02nd0.130.100.12
-Terpinolene31.77MS, LRI0.14nd0.25nd0.110.05ndnd0.030.010.02nd
Carvacrol34.66MS, LRIndnd0.01nd0.070.03ndndndndndnd

Total1.50.341.370.200.550.110.580.000.341.190.300.89

Miscellanous
Dimethyl sulfide1.93MS, LRI1.071.140.70nd1.00ndndndnd0.720.151.20
Eugenol34.45MS, LRInd0.01ndnd0.010.010.010.020.01ndndnd

Total1.071.150.70nd1.010.010.010.020.010.720.151.20

Retention time; bMS: mass spectrum tentatively identified using NIST 05 and Wiley 275 libraries; LRI: linear retention index.
cNormalized amount of volatile compounds (percentage) (peak of volatile compound/total peak area of all volatile compounds) of multifloral, acacia, and rhododendron honey from Italy (Valtellina).
nd: not detected.

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