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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 294858, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/294858
Review Article

Xanthine Oxidase: Isolation, Assays of Activity, and Inhibition

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Nis, Visegradska 33, 18 000 Nis, Serbia

Received 18 November 2014; Accepted 21 January 2015

Academic Editor: Patricia Valentao

Copyright © 2015 Danijela A. Kostić et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid which is excreted by kidneys. Excessive production and/or inadequate excretion of uric acid results in hyperuricemia. This paper presents a detailed review of methods of isolation, determination of xanthine oxidase activity, and the effect of plant extracts and their constituents on it. Determining the content and activities of XO can be used for diagnostic purposes. Testing inhibition of XO is important for detection of potentially effective compounds or extracts that can be used to treat diseases that are caused by increased activity of XO. In vitro bioassays are used to examine test material for XO inhibition, as inhibitors of XO may be potentially useful for the treatment of gout or other XO induced diseases. Several authors reported on the XO inhibitory potential of traditionally used medicinal plants.