Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2015, Article ID 521507, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/521507
Research Article

Effect of Organic Inhibitors on Chloride Corrosion of Steel Rebars in Alkaline Pore Solution

Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, INSTM RU Bergamo and University of Bergamo, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine, Italy

Received 21 November 2014; Revised 21 January 2015; Accepted 22 January 2015

Academic Editor: Sebastijan Peljhan

Copyright © 2015 Marina Cabrini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Elsener, Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel in Concrete: State of the Art Report, vol. 35, EFC Publications, 2001.
  2. T. A. Söylev and M. G. Richardson, “Corrosion inhibitors for steel in concrete: state-of-the-art report,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 609–622, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Ormellese, M. Berra, F. Bolzoni, and T. Pastore, “Corrosion inhibitors for chlorides induced corrosion in reinforced concrete structures,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 536–547, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Collepardi, R. Fratesi, G. Moriconi, V. Corradetti, and L. Coppola, “Use of nitrite salt as corrosion inhibitor admixtures in reinforced concrete structures immersed in sea-water,” in Proceedings of the International RILEM Symposium on Admixtures for Concrete, E. Vazquez, Ed., pp. 279–288, Chapman & Hall, Barcelona, Spain, 1990.
  5. M. Cabrini, S. Lorenzi, and T. Pastore, “Cyclic voltammetry evaluation of inhibitors for localised corrosion in alkaline solutions,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 124, pp. 156–164, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Cabrini, S. Lorenzi, and T. Pastore, “Studio della corrosione localizzata degli acciai per armature in soluzioni alcaline inibite,” La Metallurgia Italiana, vol. 105, no. 7-8, pp. 21–31, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  7. T. Pastore, M. Cabrini, L. Coppola, S. Lorenzi, P. Marcassoli, and A. Buoso, “Evaluation of the corrosion inhibition of salts of organic acids in alkaline solutions and chloride contaminated concrete,” Materials and Corrosion, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 187–195, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. L. Page, “Mechanism of corrosion protection in reinforced concrete marine structures,” Nature, vol. 258, no. 5535, pp. 514–515, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. A. Hausmann, “Steel corrosion in concrete—how does it occur?” Material Protection, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 19–23, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  10. V. K. Gouda, “Corrosion and corrosion inhibition of reinforcing steel. I. Immersed in alkaline solutions,” British Corrosion Journal, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 198–203, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. G. K. Glass and N. R. Buenfeld, “The presentation of the chloride threshold level for corrosion of steel in concrete,” Corrosion Science, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1001–1013, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. C. Alonso and M. Sanchez, “Analysis of the variability of chloride threshold values in the literature,” Materials and Corrosion, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 631–637, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Goñi and C. Andrade, “Synthetic concrete pore solution chemistry and rebar corrosion rate in the presence of chlorides,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 525–539, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Diamond, “Chloride concentrations in concrete pore solutions resulting from calcium and sodium chloride admixtures,” Cement, Concrete and Aggregates, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 97–102, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Yonezawa, V. Ashworth, and R. P. M. Procter, “Pore solution composition and chloride effects on the corrosion of steel in concrete,” Corrosion, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 489–499, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. U. Angst and Ø. Vennesland, “Critical chloride content in reinforced concrete,” in Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II, M. G. Alexander, H. D. Beushausen, F. Dehn, and P. Moyo, Eds., pp. 311–317, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  17. U. Angst, B. Elsener, C. K. Larsen, and Ø. Vennesland, “Critical chloride content in reinforced concrete—a review,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 1122–1138, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Tritthart and P. F. G. Banfill, “Nitrite binding in cement,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1093–1100, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. N. S. Berke, M. C. Hicks, and R. J. Hoopes, “Condition assessment of field structures with calcium nitrite,” in Concrete Bridges in Aggressive Environments, Philip D. Cady International Symposium, SP-151, ACI Publication, pp. 43–72, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Mich, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  20. N. S. Berke and M. C. Hicks, “Predicting long-term durability of steel reinforced concrete with calcium nitrite corrosion inhibitor,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 191–198, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. S. Berke and A. Rosenberg, “Calcium nitrite inhibitor in concrete,” in Proceedings of the International RILEM Symposium, Admixture for Concrete Improvment of Properties, E. Vázquez, Ed., pp. 297–315, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1990.
  22. N. S. Berke, F. Gianetti, P. G. Tourney, and Z. G. Matta, “The use of calcium nitrite corrosion inhibitor to improve the durability of reinforced concrete in the Arabian Gulf,” in Deterioration and Repair of Reinforced Concrete in the Arabian Gulf, G. L. MacMillan, Ed., vol. II, pp. 873–885, BSE, Manama, Bahrain, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. Sánchez, J. Gregori, M. C. Alonso, J. J. García-Jareño, and F. Vicente, “Anodic growth of passive layers on steel rebars in an alkaline medium simulating the concrete pores,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Castellote, C. Andrade, and C. Alonso, “Chloride threshold dependence of pitting potential of reinforcements,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 47, no. 21, pp. 3469–3481, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. B. Valcarce and M. Vázquez, “Carbon steel passivity examined in alkaline solutions: the effect of chloride and nitrite ions,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 53, no. 15, pp. 5007–5015, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. Weckler and H. D. Lutz, “Lattice vibration spectra. Part XCV. Infrared spectroscopic studies on the iron oxide hydroxides goethite (α), akaganéite (β), lepidocrocite (γ), and feroxyhite (δ),” European Journal of Solid State and Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 8-9, pp. 531–544, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. O. A. Albani, J. O. Zerbino, J. R. Vilche, and A. J. Arvia, “A comparative electrochemical and ellipsometric study of the iron electrodes in different alkaline electrolytes,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1403–1411, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Freire, X. R. Nóvoa, M. F. Montemor, and M. J. Carmezim, “Study of passive films formed on mild steel in alkaline media by the application of anodic potentials,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 114, no. 2-3, pp. 962–972, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Joiret, M. Keddam, X. R. Nóvoa, M. C. Pérez, C. Rangel, and H. Takenouti, “Use of EIS, ring-disk electrode, EQCM and Raman spectroscopy to study the film of oxides formed on iron in 1 M NaOH,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 7–15, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. Andrade, M. Keddam, X. R. Nóvoa, M. C. Pérez, C. M. Rangel, and H. Takenouti, “Electrochemical behaviour of steel rebars in concrete: influence of environmental factors and cement chemistry,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 46, no. 24-25, pp. 3905–3912, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Sánchez, J. Gregori, C. Alonso, J. J. García-Jareño, H. Takenouti, and F. Vicente, “Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for studying passive layers on steel rebars immersed in alkaline solutions simulating concrete pores,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 52, no. 27, pp. 7634–7641, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. F. Montemor, A. M. P. Simões, and M. G. S. Ferreira, “Analytical characterization of the passive film formed on steel in solutions simulating the concrete interstitial electrolyte,” Corrosion, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 347–353, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. Savoye, L. Legrand, G. Sagon et al., “Experimental investigations on iron corrosion products formed in bicarbonate/carbonate-containing solutions at 90°C,” Corrosion Science, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2049–2064, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Ghods, O. B. Isgor, J. R. Brown, F. Bensebaa, and D. Kingston, “XPS depth profiling study on the passive oxide film of carbon steel in saturated calcium hydroxide solution and the effect of chloride on the film properties,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 10, pp. 4669–4677, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. O. Giréienë, R. Ramanauskas, L. Gudaviéiutë, and A. Martušiene, “Inhibition effect of sodium nitrite and silicate on carbon steel corrosion in chloride-contaminated alkaline solutions,” Corrosion, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 125001-1–125001-12, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Ormellese, L. Lazzari, S. Goidanich, G. Fumagalli, and A. Brenna, “A study of organic substances as inhibitors for chloride-induced corrosion in concrete,” Corrosion Science, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 2959–2968, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. J. Kalota and D. C. Silverman, “Behavior of aspartic acid as a corrosion inhibitor for steel,” Corrosion, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 138–145, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Valek, S. Martinez, D. Mikulić, and I. Brnardić, “The inhibition activity of ascorbic acid towards corrosion of steel in alkaline media containing chloride ions,” Corrosion Science, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2705–2709, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Cabrini and T. Pastore, “Effect of chemical substances on localized corrosion of steel in alkaline environments and concrete,” in Frontiers in Corrosion Science and Technology: Proceedings of 15th International Corrosion Congress, Granada, September 22–27, 2002, pp. 2481–2488, Curran Associated, Red Hook, NY, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar