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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 717616, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/717616
Research Article

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Quinones from Compost for Microbial Community Analysis

1Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi 441-8180, Japan
2Department of Chemistry, Lampung University, Lampung 35145, Indonesia
3Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511, Japan
4Center for International Relations, Institute for Global Network Innovation in Technology Education, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi 441-8180, Japan

Received 20 May 2015; Revised 13 August 2015; Accepted 16 August 2015

Academic Editor: Jaime Villaverde

Copyright © 2015 Ni Luh Gede Ratna Juliasih et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to extract quinones from compost to monitor the microbial community dynamics during composting. The 0.3 g of dried compost was extracted using 3 mL min−1 of carbon dioxide (90%) and methanol (10%) at 45°C and 25 MPa for a 30 min extraction time. The extracted quinones were analysed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with 0.3 mL min−1 of methanol mobile phase for a 50 min chromatographic run time. A comparable detected amount of quinones was obtained using the developed method and an organic solvent extraction method, being 36.06 μmol kg−1 and 34.54 μmol kg−1, respectively. Significantly low value of dissimilarity index () between the two methods (0.05) indicated that the quinone profile obtained by both methods was considered identical. The developed method was then applied to determine the maturity of the compost by monitoring the change of quinone during composting. The UQ-9 and MK-7 were predominant quinones in the initial stage of composting. The diversity of quinone became more complex during the cooling and maturation stages. This study showed that SFE had successfully extracted quinones from a complex matrix with simplification and rapidity of the analysis that is beneficial for routine analysis.