Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2015, Article ID 826358, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/826358
Research Article

Effect of High Temperature on the Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Emeraldine Salt Doped with DBSA and Sulfuric Acid

1National Centre of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 , Pakistan
2Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan

Received 7 December 2014; Accepted 18 January 2015

Academic Editor: Tomokazu Yoshimura

Copyright © 2015 Salma Gul et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. S. Rao and D. N. Sathyanarayana, “Synthesis of electrically conducting copolymers of aniline with o/m-amino benzoic acid by an inverse emulsion pathway,” Polymer, vol. 43, no. 18, pp. 5051–5058, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. L. Gettinger, A. J. Heeger, D. J. Pine, and Y. Cao, “Solution characterization of surfactant solubilized polyaniline,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 81–88, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. B. Samui, A. S. Patankar, J. Rangarajan, and P. C. Deb, “Study of polyaniline containing paint for corrosion prevention,” Progress in Organic Coatings, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. H. El-Shazly and H. A. Al-Turaif, “Improving the corrosion resistance of buried steel by using polyaniline coating,” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 211–221, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Xiao, Y. Cao, J. Xiao et al., “A soft approach to encapsulate sulfur: polyaniline nanotubes for lithium-sulfur batteries with long cycle life,” Advanced Materials, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1176–1181, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. R. Ghenaatian, M. F. Mousavi, and M. S. Rahmanifar, “High performance battery-supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system based on self-doped polyaniline nanofibers,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 161, no. 17-18, pp. 2017–2023, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Liu, K. Hayashi, and K. Toko, “Au nanoparticles decorated polyaniline nanofiber sensor for detecting volatile sulfur compounds in expired breath,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 504–509, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. C. Roy, M. D. Gupta, L. Bhoumik, and J. K. Ray, “Spectroscopic investigation of water-soluble polyaniline copolymers,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y.-G. Han, T. Kusunose, and T. Sekino, “One-step reverse micelle polymerization of organic dispersible polyaniline nanoparticles,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 159, no. 1-2, pp. 123–131, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Chandrakanthi and M. A. Careem, “Thermal stability of polyaniline,” Polymer Bulletin, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 101–108, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. S. O. Chan, P. K. H. Ho, S. C. Ng, B. T. G. Tan, and K. L. Tan, “A new water-soluble, self-doping conducting polyaniline from poly(o-aminobenzylphosphonic acid) and its sodium salts: synthesis and characterization,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 117, no. 33, pp. 8517–8523, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Watanabe, K. Mori, A. Iwabuchi, Y. Iwasaki, Y. Nakamura, and O. Ito, “Electrochemical polymerization of aniline and N-alkylanilines,” Macromolecules, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 3521–3525, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. S. Pandey, S. Annapoorni, and B. D. Malhotra, “Synthesis and characterization of poly(aniline-co-o-anisidine): a processable conducting copolymer,” Macromolecules, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 3190–3193, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Palaniappan and V. Nivasu, “Emulsion polymerization pathway for preparation of organically soluble polyaniline sulfate,” New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1490–1494, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. Bilal, S. Gul, K. Ali, and A. U. A. Shah, “Synthesis and characterization of completely soluble and highly thermally stable PANI-DBSA salts,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 162, no. 24, pp. 2259–2266, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. Chen, C. Dong, X. Li, and J. Gao, “Thermal degradation mechanism of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid-hydrochloric acid co-doped polyaniline,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 94, no. 10, pp. 1788–1794, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. K. Paul and C. K. S. Pillai, “Thermal properties of processable polyaniline with novel sulfonic acid dopants,” Polymer International, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 381–386, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C.-H. Chen, “Thermal and morphological studies of chemically prepared emeraldine-base-form polyaniline powder,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 2142–2148, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Ansari and M. B. Keivani, “Polyaniline conducting electroactive polymers thermal and environmental stability studies,” E-Journal of Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 202–217, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. L. Brožová, P. Holler, J. Kovářová, J. Stejskal, and M. Trchová, “The stability of polyaniline in strongly alkaline or acidic aqueous media,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 592–600, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. D. Bompilwar, S. B. Kondwar, V. A. Tabhanea, and S. R. Kargirwar, “Thermal stability of CdS/ZnS nanoparticles embedded conducting polyaniline nanocomposites,” Advances in Applied Science Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 166–173, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. O. Ansari and F. Mohammad, “Thermal stability of HCl-doped-polyaniline and TiO2 nanoparticles-based nanocomposites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 124, no. 6, pp. 4433–4442, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Z. Qiang, G. Liang, A. Gu, and L. Yuan, “Hyperbranched polyaniline: a new conductive polyaniline with simultaneously good solubility and super high thermal stability,” Materials Letters, vol. 115, pp. 159–161, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Trchová, P. Matějka, J. Brodinová, A. Kalendová, J. Prokeš, and J. Stejskal, “Structural and conductivity changes during the pyrolysis of polyaniline base,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 114–121, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Bilal, S. Gul, R. Holze, and A. A. Shah, “An impressive emulsion polymerization route for the synthesis of completely and highly conducting polyaniline salts,” Synthetic Metals. In press.
  26. S. Bilal, A.-U. A. Shah, and R. Holze, “A correlation of electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical properties of poly(o-toluidine),” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 54, no. 21, pp. 4851–4856, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. O. Ngamna, A. Morrin, A. J. Killard, S. E. Moulton, M. R. Smyth, and G. G. Wallace, “Inkjet printable polyaniline nanoformulations,” Langmuir, vol. 23, no. 16, pp. 8569–8574, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Kim and I. J. Chung, “Annealing effect on the electrochemical property of polyaniline complexed with various acids,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 127–133, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Radhakrishnan, C. R. K. Rao, and M. Vijayan, “Performance of conducting polyaniline-DBSA and polyaniline-DBSA/Fe3O4 composites as electrode materials for aqueous redox supercapacitors,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 1510–1518, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. V. Blinova, J. Stejskal, M. Trchová, and J. Prokeš, “Polyaniline prepared in solutions of phosphoric acid: powders, thin films, and colloidal dispersions,” Polymer, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Palaniappan and C. A. Amarnath, “A novel polyaniline-maleicacid-dodecylhydrogensulfate salt: soluble polyaniline powder,” Reactive and Functional Polymers, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 1741–1748, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Dan and P. K. Sengupta, “Preparation and characterization of soluble polyaniline,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 2675–2682, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Wei, Q. Chen, and Y. Gu, “Effects of inorganic acid in DBSA-PANI polymerization on transparent PANI-SiO2 hybrid conducting films,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 501, no. 2, pp. 313–316, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. O. Ramon, E. Kesselman, R. Berkovici, Y. Cohen, and Y. Paz, “Attenuated total reflectance/fourier transform infrared studies on the phase-separation process of aqueous solutions of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide),” Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics, vol. 39, no. 14, pp. 1665–1677, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. J. Silva, A. O. Sanches, L. F. Malmonge et al., “Conductive nanocomposites based on cellulose nanofibrils coated with polyaniline-DBSA via in situ polymerization,” Macromolecular Symposia, vol. 319, no. 1, pp. 196–202, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Yin, X. Xia, and X. Zhao, “Conductivity, polarization and electrorheological activity of polyaniline nanotubes during thermo-oxidative treatment,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 2356–2363, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. B.-J. Kim, S.-G. Oh, M.-G. Han, and S.-S. Im, “Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline nanoparticles in SDS micellar solutions,” Synthetic Metals, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 297–304, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Yang, Y. Ding, G. Chen, and C. Li, “Synthesis of conducting polyaniline using novel anionic Gemini surfactant as micellar stabilizer,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 3337–3343, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus