Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2015, Article ID 839879, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/839879
Research Article

Comparative Study on Particles Formation in a Diesel Engine When Lubricating Oil Involved in Fuel Combustion

1School of Aeronautical Engineering, Civil Aviation University of China, Tianjin 300300, China
2Laboratory of IC Engine, Xihua University, Chengdu 610039, China
3State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, No. 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072, China

Received 18 January 2015; Accepted 23 February 2015

Academic Editor: Ming Huo

Copyright © 2015 Lihui Dong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. D. Kappos, P. Bruckmann, T. Eikmann et al., “Health effects of particles in ambient air,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 207, no. 4, pp. 399–407, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. B. Warheit, C. M. Sayes, K. L. Reed, and K. A. Swain, “Health effects related to nanoparticle exposures: environmental, health and safety considerations for assessing hazards and risks,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. Kim and B. Choi, “Effect of ethanol–diesel blend fuels on emission and particle size distribution in a common-rail direct injection diesel engine with warm-up catalytic converter,” Renewable Energy, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2222–2228, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Bougie, L. C. Ganippa, A. P. van Vliet, W. L. Meerts, N. J. Dam, and J. J. T. Meulen, “Soot particulate size characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine for different engine loads by laser-induced incandescence,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, vol. 31, pp. 685–691, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Gupta, A. Kothari, D. K. Srivastava, and A. K. Agarwal, “Measurement of number and size distribution of particles emitted from a mid-sized transportation multipoint port fuel injection gasoline engine,” Fuel, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 2230–2233, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Wang, H. Xu, J. M. Herreros, and J. Wang, “Impact of fuel and injection system on particle emissions from a GDI engine,” Applied Energy, vol. 132, pp. 178–191, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. P.-Q. Tan, S.-S. Ruan, Z.-Y. Hu, D.-M. Lou, and H. Li, “Particle number emissions from a light-duty diesel engine with biodiesel fuels under transient-state operating conditions,” Applied Energy, vol. 113, pp. 22–31, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. F. Chandler, Y. Teng, and U. O. Koylu, “Diesel engine particulate emissions: a comparison of mobility and microscopy size measurements,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, vol. 31, pp. 2971–2979, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Lapuerta, F. J. Martos, and J. M. Herreros, “Effect of engine operating conditions on the size of primary particles composing diesel soot agglomerates,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 455–466, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Neer and U. O. Koylu, “Effect of operating conditions on the size, morphology, and concentration of submicrometer particulates emitted from a diesel engine,” Combustion and Flame, vol. 146, no. 1-2, pp. 142–154, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Zhu, K. O. Lee, A. Yozgatligil, and M. Y. Choi, “Effects of engine operating conditions on morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry of light-duty diesel engine particulates,” Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, vol. 30, pp. 2781–2789, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Tian, K. A. Thomson, F. Liu, D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, and D. Wang, “Determination of the morphology of soot aggregates using the relative optical density method for the analysis of TEM images,” Combustion and Flame, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 782–791, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. Wei, K. Wang, W. Wang et al., “Comparison study on the emission characteristics of diesel- and dimethyl ether-originated particulate matters,” Applied Energy, vol. 130, pp. 357–369, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. M. T. Spencer, L. G. Shields, D. A. Sodeman, S. M. Toner, and K. A. Prather, “Comparison of oil and fuel particle chemical signatures with particle emissions from heavy and light duty vehicles,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 40, no. 27, pp. 5224–5235, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Cromas and J. B. Ghandhi, “Lubricating oil contribution to direct-injection two stroke engine particulate emissions,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-32-0012, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. J. Czerwinski, J. L. Pétermann, A. Ulrich, G. Mueller, and A. Wichser, “Particle emissions of a TDI-engine with different lubrication oils,” SAE Paper 2005-01-1100, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  17. B. A. Buchholz, R. W. Dibble, D. Rich, and A. S. Cheng, “Quantifying the contribution of lubrication oil carbon to particulate emissions from a diesel engine,” SAE Paper 2003-01-1987, SAE International, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Jung, D. B. Kittelson, and M. R. Zachariah, “The influence of engine lubricating oil on diesel nanoparticle emissions and kinetics of oxidation,” SAE Paper 2003-01-3179, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  19. R. Gligorijevic, J. Jevtic, and D. J. Borak, “Engine oil contribution to diesel exhaust emissions,” Journal of Synthetic Lubrication, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 27–38, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. Froelund, E. C. Owens, E. Frame et al., “Impact of lubricant oil on regulated emissions of a light-duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-engine,” SAE Paper 2001-01-1901, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  21. P. C. C. de Albuquerque, R. N. de Andrade Ávila, P. H. Barros Zárante, and J. R. Sodré, “Lubricating oil influence on exhaust hydrocarbon emissions from a gasoline fueled engine,” Tribology International, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1796–1799, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. M. Jefferd, J. S. Rogerson, D. E. Copp, R. L. Brundle, and M. A. Huntly, “The impact of lubricants on heavy duty diesel engine fuel economy and exhaust emissions,” SAE Paper 2000-01-1983, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. G. W. R. Taylor, “The effect of lubricating oil volatility on diesel emissions,” SAE Paper 2001-01-1261, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. L. Miller, C. B. Stipe, M. C. Habjan, and G. G. Ahlstrand, “Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 41, no. 19, pp. 6828–6835, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Brandenberger, M. Mohr, K. Grob, and H. P. Neukom, “Contribution of unburned lubricating oil and diesel fuel to particulate emission from passenger cars,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 39, no. 37, pp. 6985–6994, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. S. P. Kahandawala, J. L. Graham, and S. S. Sidhu, “Impact of lubricating oil on particulates formed during combustion of diesel fuel—a shock tube study,” Fuel, vol. 83, no. 13, pp. 1829–1835, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. E. Yilmaz, T. Tian, V. W. Wong, and J. B. Heywood, “The contribution of different oil consumption sources to total oil consumption in a spark ignition engine,” SAE Paper 2004-01-2909, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  28. L. Dong, G. Shu, and X. Liang, “Effect of lubricating oil on the particle size distribution and total number concentration in a diesel engine,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 109, pp. 78–83, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Wentzel, H. Gorzawski, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and S. Weinbruch, “Transmission electron microscopical and aerosol dynamical characterization of soot aerosols,” Journal of Aerosol Science, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1347–1370, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. Park, D. B. Kittelson, and P. H. McMurry, “Structural properties of diesel exhaust particles measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM): relationships to particle mass and mobility,” Aerosol Science and Technology, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 881–889, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. O. Lee, R. Cole, R. Sekar et al., “Detailed characterization of morphology and dimensions of diesel particulates via thermophoretic sampling,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-3572, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar