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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1289592, 11 pages
Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Modified with Polystyrene and Poly(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl Methacrylate) as Adsorbents for the Solid Phase Extraction of Organophosphorus Pesticides

1Cuerpo Académico de Química Fundamental y Aplicada, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Periférico Norte Km 33.5, Tablaje Catastral 13615, Colonia Chuburná de Hidalgo Inn, 97203 Mérida, YUC, Mexico
2Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 14.5, Campus “El Rosedal”, San Cayetano, 50200 Toluca, MEX, Mexico

Received 16 January 2016; Revised 12 May 2016; Accepted 22 May 2016

Academic Editor: Jean-Marie Nedelec

Copyright © 2016 Enrique Alejo-Molina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Novel hybrid TiO2 particles were developed and assessed as an adsorbent for solid phase extraction (SPE) of organophosphorus pesticides (fensulfothion, parathion methyl, coumaphos, and diazinon) from spiked water. The sol-gel method was used to synthesize TiO2 particles, which were coated with free-radical polystyrene (PS) and poly(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PClHPMA) polymers. Particle structures were determined via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to confirm that the polymers were successfully anchored to the TiO2 particles. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to determine organic and inorganic matter in TiO2-PS and TiO2-PClHPMA particles showing results of 20 : 80 wt/wt% and 23 : 77 wt/wt%, respectively. SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction test were conducted to determine the morphology and semielemental composition of the particles showing amorphous characteristics. By observing the contact angle, particles coated with PClHPMA were determined to be more hydrophilic than TiO2-PS particles. The pore size distributions obtained from the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms were 0.150 and 0.168 cm3g−1. The specific surface area (BET) was 239.9 m2g−1 for TiO2-PS and 225.7 m2g−1 for TiO2-PClHPMA. The synthesized particles showed relatively high yields of adsorption in SPE. The pesticide recoveries obtained by high performance liquid chromatography ranged from 6 to 26% for TiO2-PClHPMA and 44 to 92% for TiO2-PS.