Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 1289592, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1289592
Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of TiO2 Modified with Polystyrene and Poly(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl Methacrylate) as Adsorbents for the Solid Phase Extraction of Organophosphorus Pesticides

1Cuerpo Académico de Química Fundamental y Aplicada, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Periférico Norte Km 33.5, Tablaje Catastral 13615, Colonia Chuburná de Hidalgo Inn, 97203 Mérida, YUC, Mexico
2Centro Conjunto de Investigación en Química Sustentable UAEM-UNAM, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 14.5, Campus “El Rosedal”, San Cayetano, 50200 Toluca, MEX, Mexico

Received 16 January 2016; Revised 12 May 2016; Accepted 22 May 2016

Academic Editor: Jean-Marie Nedelec

Copyright © 2016 Enrique Alejo-Molina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Svec, “Less common applications of monoliths: preconcentration and solid-phase extraction,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 841, no. 1-2, pp. 52–64, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Y. Lu, Q. Shen, Z. Dai, and H. Zhang, “Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the ultra-fast determination of chloramphenicol in egg, honey, and milk by fused-core C18-based high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 398, no. 4, pp. 1819–1826, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Michalkiewicz, M. Biesaga, and K. Pyrzynska, “Solid-phase extraction procedure for determination of phenolic acids and some flavonols in honey,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1187, no. 1-2, pp. 18–24, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Chen, C. Duan, and Y. Guan, “Sorptive extraction techniques in sample preparation for organophosphorus pesticides in complex matrices,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 878, no. 17-18, pp. 1216–1225, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Q. Zhou, J. Xiao, and W. Wang, “Using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as solid phase extraction adsorbents to determine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites at trace level in water samples by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1125, no. 2, pp. 152–158, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Liang, Y. Liu, L. Guo, J. Zeng, and H. Lu, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the preconcentration of trace metal ions and their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1489–1492, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Algarra, M. V. Jimenez, F. G. Sanchez, J. Soto, J. J. Jimenez, and J. C. G. Esteves Da Silva, “Adsorption and recovery of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on hybrid surfactant expanded zirconium-phosphate,” Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 28–40, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Fontanals, P. Puig, M. Galià, R. M. Marcé, and F. Borrull, “New hydrophilic polymeric resin based on 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene for solid-phase extraction of polar compounds from water,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1035, no. 2, pp. 281–284, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. Tolosa, B. Douy, and F. P. Carvalho, “Comparison of the performance of graphitized carbon black and poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) cartridges for the determination of pesticides and industrial phosphates in environmental waters,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 864, no. 1, pp. 121–136, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Ballesteros and M. J. Parrado, “Continuous solid-phase extraction and gas chromatographic determination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural and drinking waters,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1029, no. 1-2, pp. 267–273, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Li, L. Chen, and W. Li, “Magnetic titanium oxide nanoparticles for hemimicelle extraction and HPLC determination of organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 180, no. 11-12, pp. 1109–1116, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Tolosa, J. W. Readman, and L. D. Mee, “Comparison of the performance of solid-phase extraction techniques in recovering organophosphorus and organochlorine compounds from water,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 725, no. 1, pp. 93–106, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Katsumata, T. Matsumoto, S. Kaneco, T. Suzuki, and K. Ohta, “Preconcentration of diazinon using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbents,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 82–86, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Q. Li, X. Wang, and D. Yuan, “Solid-phase extraction of polar organophosphorous pesticides from aqueous samples with oxidized carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 439–444, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Blasco, G. Font, and Y. Picó, “Determination of dithiocarbamates and metabolites in plants by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1028, no. 2, pp. 267–276, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Furusawa, “A toxic reagent-free method for normal-phase matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatographic determination of aldrin, dieldrin, and DDTs in animal fats,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 378, no. 8, pp. 2004–2007, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. S. S. Curren and J. W. King, “New sample preparation technique for the determination of avoparcin in pressurized hot water extracts from kidney samples,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 954, no. 1-2, pp. 41–49, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. M. Torres, Y. Picó, and J. Mañes, “Comparison of octadecylsilica and graphitized carbon black as materials for solid-phase extraction of fungicide and insecticide residues from fruit and vegetables,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 778, no. 1-2, pp. 127–137, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Engholm-Keller and M. R. Larsen, “Titanium dioxide as chemo-affinity chromatographic sorbent of biomolecular compounds—applications in acidic modification-specific proteomics,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 317–328, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. Nakayama and T. Hayashi, “Preparation of TiO2 nanoparticles surface-modified by both carboxylic acid and amine: dispersibility and stabilization in organic solvents,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 317, no. 1-3, pp. 543–550, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Q.-X. Zhou, X.-N. Zhao, and J.-P. Xiao, “Preconcentration of nickel and cadmium by TiO2 nanotubes as solid-phase extraction adsorbents coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry,” Talanta, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 1774–1777, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Matúš, I. Hagarová, M. Bujdoš, P. Diviš, and J. Kubová, “Determination of trace amounts of total dissolved cationic aluminium species in environmental samples by solid phase extraction using nanometer-sized titanium dioxide and atomic spectrometry techniques,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 1473–1479, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. Liu, P. Liang, and L. Guo, “Nanometer titanium dioxide immobilized on silica gel as sorbent for preconcentration of metal ions prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry,” Talanta, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 25–30, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Ma and S. X. Tu, “Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution by two types of nano TiO2 crystals,” Environmental Chemistry Letters, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 465–472, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Q. Zhou, Y. Ding, J. Xiao, G. Liu, and X. Guo, “Investigation of the feasibility of TiO2 nanotubes for the enrichment of DDT and its metabolites at trace levels in environmental water samples,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1147, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. A. Ismail, A. A. El-Midany, I. A. Ibrahim, and H. Matsunaga, “Heavy metal removal using SiO2-TiO2 binary oxide: experimental design approach,” Adsorption, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21–29, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. V. M. de Moraes, J. B. Passos, P. Schossler et al., “Silica–titania sol–gel hybrid materials: synthesis, characterization and potential application in solid phase extraction,” Talanta, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1039–1044, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. A. Xiaoguo, B. Huang, and M. Cheng, “Analysis of trace mercury in water by solid phase extraction using dithizone modified nanometer titanium dioxide and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry,” Rare Metals, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 541–546, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. Huang, Q. Zhou, and G. Xie, “Development of micro-solid phase extraction with titanate nanotube array modified by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide for sensitive determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 193, pp. 82–89, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. I. M. Ali, A. A. El-Zahhar, and E. S. Zakaria, “Thermal and sorption behavior of polyacrylonitrile supported hydrous titanium dioxide,” Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, vol. 264, no. 3, pp. 637–644, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C.-M. Chung, T. P. Chou, G. Cao, and J.-G. Kim, “Porous organic-inorganic hybrids for removal of amines via donor-acceptor interaction,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 95, no. 2-3, pp. 260–263, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. Karasová, E. Brandsteterová, and M. Lachová, “Matrix solid phase dispersion as an effective preparation method for food samples and plants before HPLC analysis,” Czech Journal of Food Sciences, vol. 21, pp. 219–234, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  33. W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” Journal of Colloid And Interface Science, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 62–69, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. F. An, X. Feng, and B. Gao, “Adsorption mechanism and property of a novel adsorption material PAM/SiO2 towards 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 352–357, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. N. Murashkevich, A. S. Lavitskaya, T. I. Barannikova, and I. M. Zharskii, “Infrared absorption spectra and structure of TiO2–SiO2 composites,” Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 730–734, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. V. C. Costa, F. S. Lameiras, M. T. C. Sansviero, A. B. Simões, and W. L. Vasconcelos, “Preparation of CdS-containing silica-titania composites by the sol-gel process,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 348, pp. 190–194, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. Ukaji, T. Furusawa, M. Sato, and N. Suzuki, “The effect of surface modification with silane coupling agent on suppressing the photo-catalytic activity of fine TiO2 particles as inorganic UV filter,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 254, no. 2, pp. 563–569, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Ghiaci, B. Rezaei, and R. J. Kalbasi, “High selective SiO2-Al2O3 mixed-oxide modified carbon paste electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Pb(II),” Talanta, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 37–45, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Jitianu, A. Britchi, C. Deleanu, V. Badescu, and M. Zaharescu, “Comparative study of the sol-gel processes starting with different substituted Si-alkoxides,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol. 319, no. 3, pp. 263–279, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. K. Kaniappan and S. Latha, “Certain investigations on the formulation and characterization of polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends,” International Journal of ChemTech Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 708–717, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. F.-Z. Tighilt, N. Gabouze, S. Sam, S. Belhousse, and K. Beldjilali, “Morphology and specific interaction of PMMA coating with the surface of porous silicon,” Surface Science, vol. 601, no. 18, pp. 4217–4221, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. Natamai, Polymer Testing: New Instrumental Methods, Momentum Press, New York, NY, USA, 2012.
  43. S. Ahmad, S. Ahmad, and S. A. Agnihotry, “Synthesis and characterization of in situ prepared poly (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 31–35, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. S. W. Sing, D. H. Everett, R. A. W. Haul et al., “Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity (recommendations 1984),” Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 57, pp. 603–619, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  45. A. Walcarius and M. M. Collinson, “Analytical chemistry with silica sol-gels: traditional routes to new materials for chemical analysis,” Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry, vol. 2, pp. 121–143, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus