Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4231467, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4231467
Research Article

Photooxidation of Toluene: Correlation of Noble Metal Loading on Titania and Activation Energy

1Department of Chemistry, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan
2Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir (L), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
3Department of Chemistry, University of Education, Attock Campus, Attock, Pakistan
4University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan
5National Center of Excellence in Physical Chemistry, University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

Received 1 September 2016; Accepted 27 October 2016

Academic Editor: Zhaoyang Lin

Copyright © 2016 Haroon ur Rashid et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Fujishima and T. N. Rao, “Recent advances in heterogeneous TiO2 photocatalysis,” Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences: Chemical Sciences, vol. 109, no. 6, pp. 471–486, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. E. Eliyas, L. Ljutzkanov, I. D. Stambolova et al., “Visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 deposited on activated carbon,” Central European Journal of Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 464–470, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. Wantala, S. Neramittagapong, A. Neramittagapong, K. Kasipar, S. Khaownetr, and S. Chuichulcherm, “Photocatalytic degradation of alachlor on Fe-TiO2-immobilized on GAC under black light irradiation using Box-Behnken design,” Materials Science Forum, vol. 734, pp. 306–316, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. D. Bui, A. Kimura, S. Ikeda, and M. Matsumura, “Determination of oxygen sources for oxidation of benzene on TiO2 photocatalysts in aqueous solutions containing molecular oxygen,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 24, pp. 8453–8458, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. I. De Lasa, B. Serrano, and M. Salaices, Photo Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
  6. H. Khojasteh, M. Salavati-Niasari, A. Abbasi, F. Azizi, and M. Enhessari, “Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of PdO/TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 nano composites,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 1261–1269, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. Palmisano, V. Augugliaro, M. Pagliaro, and L. Palmisano, “Photocatalysis: a promising route for 21st century organic chemistry,” Chemical Communications, no. 33, pp. 3425–3437, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Shiraishi and T. Hirai, “Selective organic transformations on titanium oxide-based photocatalysts,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 157–170, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Ni, M. K. H. Leung, D. Y. C. Leung, and K. Sumathy, “A review and recent developments in photocatalytic water-splitting using TiO2 for hydrogen production,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 401–425, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F.-C. Wang, C.-H. Liu, C.-W. Liu, J.-H. Chao, and C.-H. Lin, “Effect of pt loading order on photocatalytic activity of Pt/TiO2 nanofiber in generation of H2 from neat ethanol,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 31, pp. 13832–13840, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. A. Connelly and H. Idriss, “The photoreaction of TiO2 and Au/TiO2 single crystal and powder surfaces with organic adsorbates. Emphasis on hydrogen production from renewables,” Green Chemistry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 260–280, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Su, R. Tiruvalam, Q. He et al., “Promotion of phenol photodecomposition over TiO2 using Au, Pd, and Au–Pd nanoparticles,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 6284–6292, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Bahruji, M. Bowker, P. R. Davies, and F. Pedrono, “New insights into the mechanism of photocatalytic reforming on Pd/TiO2,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 107, no. 1-2, pp. 205–209, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Mogyorósi, Á. Kmetykó, N. Czirbus, G. Veréb, P. Sipos, and A. Dombi, “Comparison of the substrate dependent performance of Pt-, Au- and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts in H2-production and in decomposition of various organics,” Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis Letters, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 215–225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. A. Egerton and J. A. Mattinson, “The influence of platinum on UV and ‘visible’ photocatalysis by rutile and Degussa P25,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 194, no. 2-3, pp. 283–289, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. A. Kandiel, R. Dillert, and D. W. Bahnemann, “Enhanced photocatalytic production of molecular hydrogen on TiO2 modified with Pt-polypyrrole nanocomposites,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 683–690, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. A. Emilio, R. Gettar, and M. I. Litter, “Mechanism of degradation of nitrilotriacetic acid by heterogeneous photocatalysis over TiO2 and platinized TiO2,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 35, no. 7-8, pp. 733–740, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Abida, L. Chirchi, S. Baranton et al., “Preparation and characterization of Pt/TiO2 nanotubes catalyst for methanol electro-oxidation,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 106, no. 3-4, pp. 609–615, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. U. Siemon, D. Bahnemann, J. J. Testa, D. Rodríguez, M. I. Litter, and N. Bruno, “Heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions comparing TiO2 and Pt/TiO2,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 148, no. 1–3, pp. 247–255, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. Belver, M. J. López-Muñoz, J. M. Coronado, and J. Soria, “Palladium enhanced resistance to deactivation of titanium dioxide during the photocatalytic oxidation of toluene vapors,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 497–509, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y.-B. Xie and C.-W. Yuan, “Calculation method of quantum efficiency to TIO2 nanocrystal photocatalysis reaction,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 70–75, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. H. Leong, H. Y. Chu, S. Ibrahim, and P. Saravanan, “Palladium nanoparticles anchored to anatase TiO2 for enhanced surface plasmon resonance-stimulated, visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity,” Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 428–437, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Sakthivel, M. V. Shankar, M. Palanichamy, B. Arabindoo, D. W. Bahnemann, and V. Murugesan, “Enhancement of photocatalytic activity by metal deposition: characterisation and photonic efficiency of Pt, Au and Pd deposited on TiO2 catalyst,” Water Research, vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 3001–3008, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. M. Ahmed, I. Ivanova, F. H. Hussein, and D. W. Bahnemann, “Role of platinum deposited on TiO2 in photocatalytic methanol oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2014, Article ID 503516, 9 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. Choi, A. Termin, and M. R. Hoffmann, “The role of metal ion dopants in quantum-sized TiO2: correlation between photoreactivity and charge carrier recombination dynamics,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 98, no. 51, pp. 13669–13679, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus