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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2016, Article ID 9378460, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9378460
Research Article

Performance Investigation of O-Ring Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module for Water Desalination

1Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, College of Technological Studies, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET), P.O. Box 117, 44010 Sabah Al-Salem, Kuwait
2Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, Engineering Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
3Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, P.O. Box 54590, Lahore, Pakistan
4Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, HBKU, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar

Received 14 July 2016; Revised 9 September 2016; Accepted 15 September 2016

Academic Editor: Rosa Maria Gomez Espinosa

Copyright © 2016 Adnan Alhathal Alanezi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A new O-ring flat sheet membrane module design was used to investigate the performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) for water desalination using two commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) flat sheet hydrophobic membranes. The design of the membrane module proved its applicability for achieving a high heat transfer coefficient of the order of 103 (W/m2 K) and a high Reynolds number (Re). VMD experiments were conducted to measure the heat and mass transfer coefficients within the membrane module. The effects of the process parameters, such as the feed temperature, feed flow rate, vacuum degree, and feed concentration, on the permeate flux have been investigated. The feed temperature, feed flow rate, and vacuum degree play an important role in enhancing the performance of the VMD process; therefore, optimizing all of these parameters is the best way to achieve a high permeate flux. The PTFE membrane showed better performance than the PVDF membrane in VMD desalination. The obtained water flux is relatively high compared to that reported in the literature, reaching 43.8 and 52.6 (kg/m2 h) for PVDF and PTFE, respectively. The salt rejection of NaCl was higher than 99% for both membranes.