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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 7941853, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7941853
Research Article

A Novel Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Hybrid Polymer/Metal Oxide as Catalysts for p-Chloronitrobenzene Hydrogenation

1Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 129, Concepción, Chile
2Departamento de Ciencias Químicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Sede Concepción, Autopista Concepción-Talcahuano 7100, Talcahuano, Chile

Correspondence should be addressed to Cristian H. Campos; lc.cedu@sopmacc

Received 1 December 2016; Revised 2 February 2017; Accepted 6 February 2017; Published 22 March 2017

Academic Editor: Renal Backov

Copyright © 2017 Cristian H. Campos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This contribution reports a novel preparation of gold nanoparticles on polymer/metal oxide hybrid materials (Au/P[VBTACl]-M metal: Al, Ti or Zr) and their use as heterogeneous catalysts in liquid phase hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene. The support was prepared by in situ radical polymerization/sol gel process of (4-vinyl-benzyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate in conjunction with metal-alkoxides as metal oxide precursors. The supported catalyst was prepared by an ion exchange process using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) as gold precursor. The support provided the appropriate environment to induce the spontaneous reduction and deposition of gold nanoparticles. The hybrid material was characterized. TEM and DRUV-vis results indicated that the gold forms spherical metallic nanoparticles and that their mean diameter increases in the sequence, Au/P[VBTACl]-Zr > Au/P[VBTACl]-Al > Au/P[VBTACl]-Ti. The reactivity of the Au catalysts toward the p-CNB hydrogenation reaction is attributed to the different particle size distributions of gold nanoparticles in the hybrid supports. The kinetic pseudo-first-order constant values for the catalysts in the hydrogenation reaction increases in the order, Au/P[VBTACl]-Al > Au/P[VBTACl]-Zr > Au/P[VBTACl]-Ti. The selectivity for all the catalytic systems was greater than 99% toward the chloroaniline target product. Finally the catalyst supported on the hybrid with Al as metal oxide could be reused at least four times without loss in activity or selectivity for the hydrogenation of p-CNB in ethanol as solvent.