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Journal of Chemistry
Volume 2017, Article ID 8571928, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8571928
Research Article

Trace-Level Screening of Chemicals Related to Clandestine Desomorphine Production with Ambient Sampling, Portable Mass Spectrometry

Department of Chemistry, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Christopher C. Mulligan; ude.utsli@nagillum

Received 2 February 2017; Revised 10 June 2017; Accepted 28 June 2017; Published 1 August 2017

Academic Editor: Artur M. S. Silva

Copyright © 2017 Seth E. Hall et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Desomorphine is a semisynthetic opioid that is responsible for the psychoactive effects of a dangerous homemade injectable mixture that goes by street name “Krokodil.” Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) and paper spray ionization (PSI) are implemented on a portable mass spectrometer for the direct analysis of desomorphine and precursor reagent codeine from multiple substrates of potential relevance to clandestine drug laboratory synthesis and paraphernalia seizure. Minimal sample preparation required for analysis and portability of the instrument suggest the potential for rapid, on-site analysis of evidence, a highly desired benefit for forensic science and law enforcement practitioners. Both DESI-MS and PSI-MS can generate spectra consistent with preceding data obtained using traditional ionization methods, while demonstrating detection limits in the low- to sub-ng levels.