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Journal of Computer Networks and Communications publishes original research and review articles that investigate both the theoretical and practical aspects of computer networks and communications.
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Hybrid Botnet Detection Based on Host and Network Analysis
Botnet is one of the most dangerous cyber-security issues. The botnet infects unprotected machines and keeps track of the communication with the command and control server to send and receive malicious commands. The attacker uses botnet to initiate dangerous attacks such as DDoS, fishing, data stealing, and spamming. The size of the botnet is usually very large, and millions of infected hosts may belong to it. In this paper, we addressed the problem of botnet detection based on network’s flows records and activities in the host. Thus, we propose a general technique capable of detecting new botnets in early phase. Our technique is implemented in both sides: host side and network side. The botnet communication traffic we are interested in includes HTTP, P2P, IRC, and DNS using IP fluxing. HANABot algorithm is proposed to preprocess and extract features to distinguish the botnet behavior from the legitimate behavior. We evaluate our solution using a collection of real datasets (malicious and legitimate). Our experiment shows a high level of accuracy and a low false positive rate. Furthermore, a comparison between some existing approaches was given, focusing on specific features and performance. The proposed technique outperforms some of the presented approaches in terms of accurately detecting botnet flow records within Netflow traces.
Towards Developing Enhanced Cluster-Based QoS-Aware Routing in MANET
Creating dynamic communication infrastructures between mobile devices and satisfying the desires for time-sensitive multimedia applications have introduced new challenges in the design of protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, to stream time-sensitive applications using mobile ad hoc network (MANET), we have selected the Optimal Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. However, the protocol has high overhead because each node selects a set of multipoint relay (MPR) nodes. Therefore, we have proposed quality of service (QoS) supporting the MPR selection approach and a new lower maintenance clustering approach for minimizing the overhead of the network. As a result, the proposed approach showed a better result in the average end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, routing load, and throughput.
QoS Strategies for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks in the Context of IoT at the MAC Layer, Application Layer, and Cross-Layer Algorithms
Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) have got capacity to collect both scalar sensor data and multidimensional sensor data. It is the basis for the Internet of things (IoT). Quality of service (QoS) pointers like energy efficiency, reliability, bit error rate, and latency can be helpful in data collection estimation over a network. In this paper, we review a number of QoS strategies for WMSNs and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in the IoT context from the perspective of the MAC and application layers as well as the cross-layer paradigm. Considering the MAC layer, since it is responsible for regulating the admittance to the shared medium and transmission reliability and efficiency through error correction in wireless transmissions, and for performance of framing, addressing, and flow control, the MAC protocol design greatly affects energy efficiency. We thus review a number of protocols here including contention-free and contention-based protocols as well as the hybrid of these. This paper also surveys a number of state-of-the-art machine-to-machine, publish/subscribe, and request/response protocols at the application layer. Cross-layer QoS strategies are very vital when it comes to system optimization. Many cross-layer strategies have been reviewed. For these QoS strategies, the challenges and opportunities are reviewed at each of the layers considered. Lastly, the future research directions for QoS strategies are discussed for research and application before concluding this paper.
Spectrum Sharing with Dynamic Cournot Game in Vehicle-Enabled Cognitive Small-Cell Networks
Cognitive radio technology can effectively improve spectrum efficiency in wireless networks and is also applicable to vehicle small-cell networks. In this paper, we consider the problem of spectrum sharing among a vehicle primary user (V-PU) and multiple vehicle secondary users (V-SUs). This problem is modeled as a competition market, and the solution for V-SUs is designed using a non-cooperative game. A utility function that measures the profit of the V-PU considering quality of service (QoS) is proposed, aiming at maximizing the profit of the V-PU. Nash equilibrium is obtained as the best solution in our game. Then, the realistic vehicle-enabled cognitive small-cell network is considered in building the dynamic spectrum allocation problem. The V-SUs adjust their current strategies gradually and iteratively based on the observations on the strategies of the previous moment. This adjustment parameter is controlled by the frequency of adjustment. The stability analysis of the dynamic game is given out subsequently for dynamic spectrum allocation. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed dynamic spectrum scheme for vehicle-enabled cognitive small-cell networks and Nash equilibrium point’s existence.
A Proposed IoT-Enabled Smart Waste Bin Management System and Efficient Route Selection
Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that offers promising solutions to modernize the traditional systems. It accords promising result in crystallizing smart cities, smart homes, smart industries, and smart environment. This article presents the smart waste management architecture for smart cities and efficient routing technique considering least delay for the architecture. In wireless sensor networks, end-to-end delay is one of the important Quality of Services (QoS) parameter to overcome delay in data communication. In this article, we consider end-to-end delay minimization in smart waste management application. The term “end-to-end delay” is defined as the total time taken by a single packet to reach the destination node. The proposed scheme considers the interference level, the length of the routing path, and the number of hops along the path. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms current schemes.
Generic Controller Adaptive Load Balancing (GCALB) for SDN Networks
Fault tolerance is an important aspect of network resilience. Fault-tolerance mechanisms are required to ensure high availability and high reliability in different environments. The beginning of software-defined networking (SDN) has both presented new challenges and opened a new era to develop new strategies, standards, and architectures to support fault tolerance. In this paper, a study of fault tolerance is performed for two architectures: (1) a single master with multiple slave controllers and (2) multiple slave controllers. The proposed model is called a Generic Controller Adaptive Load Balancing (GCALB) model for SDNs. GCALB adapts the load among slave controllers based on a GCALB algorithm. Mininet simulation tool is utilized for the experimentation phase. Controllers are implemented using floodlights. Experiment results were conducted using GCALB when master controller is taking the responsibility of distributing switches among four and five slave controllers as a case study. Throughput and response time metrics are used to measure performance. GCALB is compared with two reference algorithms: (1) HyperFlow (Kreutz et al., 2012), and (2) Enhanced Controller Fault Tolerant (ECFT) (Aly and Al-anazi, 2018). Results are promising as the performance of GCALB increased by 15% and 12% when compared to HyperFlow and by 13% and 10% when compared to ECFT in terms of throughput and response time.