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Journal of Computer Systems, Networks, and Communications
Volume 2010, Article ID 794749, 11 pages
Research Article

Simulation of 802.21 Handovers Using ns-2

1Instituto Politécnico Castelo Branco, Escola Superior de Tecnologia, Avenida do Empresário, 6000-767 Castelo Branco, Portugal
2Instituto de Telecomunicações, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193Aveiro, Portugal

Received 1 February 2010; Accepted 2 June 2010

Academic Editor: Charalabos Skianis

Copyright © 2010 Hugo Marques et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The new IEEE 802.21 standard specifies link layer intelligence and other related network information to upper layers in order to optimize handovers between networks of different types, such as WiMAX, Wi-Fi, and 3GPP. This paper makes a short description of 802.21 standard, how it is implemented in ns-2, and the signaling used in a handover between WiMAX and Wi-Fi. The paper also proposes a novel and very simple approach to determine the expected number of handovers in an ns-2 simulation and also evaluates the reliability and scalability of ns-2 when simulating 802.21 scenarios with multiple nodes.