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Journal of Computer Networks and Communications
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 475232, 13 pages
Research Article

Cross-Layer Scheduling and Resource Allocation for Heterogeneous Traffic in 3G LTE

Department of Computer, Communication, and Interactive Systems (CCIS), School of Engineering and Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK

Received 6 May 2014; Revised 4 August 2014; Accepted 5 August 2014; Published 26 August 2014

Academic Editor: Peter Mueller

Copyright © 2014 Richard Musabe and Hadi Larijani. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


3G long term evolution (LTE) introduces stringent needs in order to provide different kinds of traffic with Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics. The major problem with this nature of LTE is that it does not have any paradigm scheduling algorithm that will ideally control the assignment of resources which in turn will improve the user satisfaction. This has become an open subject and different scheduling algorithms have been proposed which are quite challenging and complex. To address this issue, in this paper, we investigate how our proposed algorithm improves the user satisfaction for heterogeneous traffic, that is, best-effort traffic such as file transfer protocol (FTP) and real-time traffic such as voice over internet protocol (VoIP). Our proposed algorithm is formulated using the cross-layer technique. The goal of our proposed algorithm is to maximize the expected total user satisfaction (total-utility) under different constraints. We compared our proposed algorithm with proportional fair (PF), exponential proportional fair (EXP-PF), and U-delay. Using simulations, our proposed algorithm improved the performance of real-time traffic based on throughput, VoIP delay, and VoIP packet loss ratio metrics while PF improved the performance of best-effort traffic based on FTP traffic received, FTP packet loss ratio, and FTP throughput metrics.