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Journal of Computer Networks and Communications
Volume 2015, Article ID 170138, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/170138
Research Article

An Energy-Efficient Clustering Routing Algorithm Based on Geographic Position and Residual Energy for Wireless Sensor Network

1LRIT, Research Unit Associated with the CNRST (URAC29), FSR, Mohammed V University, 1014 Rabat, Morocco
2ENSIAS, Mohammed V University, 713 Rabat, Morocco
3EMSI, 10000 Rabat, Morocco

Received 27 June 2014; Revised 27 November 2014; Accepted 11 December 2014

Academic Editor: John Doucette

Copyright © 2015 Ali Jorio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Recently wireless sensor network (WSN) has become one of the most interesting networking technologies, since it can be deployed without communication infrastructures. A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensor nodes; these nodes are responsible for supervision of the physical phenomenon and transmission of the periodical results to the base station. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and maximizing the networking lifetime are the major challenges in this kind of networks. To deal with this, a hierarchical clustering scheme, called Location-Energy Spectral Cluster Algorithm (LESCA), is proposed in this paper. LESCA determines automatically the number of clusters in a network. It is based on spectral classification and considers both the residual energy and some properties of nodes. In fact, our approach uses the K-ways algorithm and proposes new features of the network nodes such as average energy, distance to BS, and distance to clusters centers in order to determine the clusters and to elect the cluster's heads of a WSN. The simulation results show that if the clusters are not constructed in an optimal way and/or the number of the clusters is greater or less than the optimal number of clusters, the total consumed energy of the sensor network per round is increased exponentially.