Table 1: System parameters used in the proposed model.

ParameterValue

Coding rate1/2
Coding schemeLDPC, TCM, hybrid LDPC, and TCM
Modulation scheme16-QAM
Encoding sequenceLDPC then TCM
Wavelength (λ)1550 nm
Range (L)1000 m
Refractive-index structure
Parameter ()0.75 ∗ 10−14