Table 9: Optimization parameters and conditions.

Optimization algorithmDynamic constraintOptimization variablesOptimization object

Combined optimization algorithm≤ 5se_hmin F(x)
≤ 20se_l
≤ 3km/hdisc
≥ 12%cs_c

where is the acceleration time (0~18km/h); is the acceleration time (0~50km/h); is the absolute value of speed tracking error; is the maximum gradeability (15km/h); e_h, e_l are the correction coefficients of ICE working upper limit and lower limit, respectively; disc is the discharge coefficient of the supercapacitor; cs_c is the joint speed of mode clutch at CS stage.