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Journal of Drug Delivery
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 902403, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/902403
Review Article

Enhanced Transport Capabilities via Nanotechnologies: Impacting Bioefficacy, Controlled Release Strategies, and Novel Chaperones

1Microfluidics International Corporation, P.O. Box 9101, Newton, MA 02464, USA
2Chemical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 66, Room 305, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, USA

Received 31 December 2010; Revised 22 February 2011; Accepted 23 February 2011

Academic Editor: Giorgia Pastorin

Copyright © 2011 Thomai Panagiotou and Robert J. Fisher. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Emerging nanotechnologies have, and will continue to have, a major impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Their influence on a drug's life cycle, inception to delivery, is rapidly expanding. As the industry moves more aggressively toward continuous manufacturing modes, utilizing Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Process Intensification (PI) concepts, the critical role of transport phenomena becomes elucidated. The ability to transfer energy, mass, and momentum with directed purposeful outcomes is a worthwhile endeavor in establishing higher production rates more economically. Furthermore, the ability to obtain desired drug properties, such as size, habit, and morphology, through novel manufacturing strategies permits unique formulation control for optimum delivery methodologies. Bottom-up processing to obtain nano-sized crystals is an excellent example. Formulation and delivery are intimately coupled in improving bio-efficacy at reduced loading and/or better controlled release capabilities, minimizing side affects and providing improved therapeutic interventions. Innovative nanotechnology applications, such as simultaneous targeting, imaging and delivery to tumors, are now possible through use of novel chaperones. Other examples include nanoparticles attachment to T-cells, release from novel hydrogel implants, and functionalized encapsulants. Difficult tasks such as drug delivery to the brain via the blood brain barrier and/or the cerebrospinal fluid are now easier to accomplish.