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International Journal of Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 3 (2002), Issue 2, Pages 131-144
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15604280214489

Potentiation of Mitogenic Activity of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor by Physiological Concentrations of Insulin via the MAP Kinase Cascade in Rat A10 Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

1Diabetes Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University. Kawadacho 8-1, Shinjukuku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan
2Department of Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University. Kawadacho 8-1, Shinjukuku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan

Received 7 March 2001; Revised 20 November 2001

Copyright © 2002 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hyperinsulinemia has been shown to be associated with diabetic angiopathy. Migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are the processes required for the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we attempted to determine whether insulin affects mitogenic signaling induced by plateletderived growth factor (PDGF) in a rat VSMC cell line (A10 cells). PDGF stimulated DNA synthesis which was totally dependent on Ras, because transfection of dominant negative Ras resulted in complete loss of PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. Initiation of DNA synthesis was preceded by activation of Raf-1, MEK and MAP kinases (Erk 1 and Erk2). Treatment of the cells with PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MEK) attenuated but did not abolish PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis, suggesting that MAPK is required but not essential for DNA synthesis. PDGF also stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) and p70 S6Kinase (p70S6K) in a wortmannin-sensitive manner. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of p70S6K, markedly suppressed DNA synthesis. Low concentrations of insulin (1-10 nmol/l) alone showed little mitogenic activity and no significant effect on MAPK activity. However, the presence of insulin enhanced both DNA synthesis and MAPK activation by PDGF. The enhancing effect of insulin was not seen in cells treated with PD98059. Insulin was without effect on PDGF-stimulated activations of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) and p70S6K. We conclude that insulin, at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations, potentiates the PDGFstimulated DNA synthesis, at least in part, by potentiating activation of the MAPK cascade. These results are consistent with the notion that hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis.