Journal of Diabetes Research

Journal of Diabetes Research / 2004 / Article

Open Access

Volume 5 |Article ID 948942 | https://doi.org/10.1080/15438600490424479

John Wahren, Jawed Shafqat, Jan Johansson, Alexander Chibalin, Karin Ekberg, Hans Jörnvall, "Molecular and Cellular Effects of C-peptide—New Perspectives on an Old Peptide", Journal of Diabetes Research, vol. 5, Article ID 948942, 9 pages, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438600490424479

Molecular and Cellular Effects of C-peptide—New Perspectives on an Old Peptide

Received23 Jan 2003
Accepted02 Apr 2003

Abstract

New results present C-peptide as a biologically active peptide hormone in its own right. Although C-peptide is formed from proinsulin and cosecreted with insulin, it is a separate entity with biochemical and physiological characteristics that differ from those of insulin. There is direct evidence of stereospecific binding of C-peptide to a cell surface receptor, which is different from those for insulin and other related hormones. The C-peptide binding site is most likely a G–protein–coupled receptor. The association constant for C-peptide binding is approximately 3 × 109M-1. Saturation of the binding occurs already at a concentration of about 1 nM, which explains why C-peptide effects are not observed in healthy subjects. Binding of C-peptide results in activation of Ca2+ and MAPK-dependent pathways and stimulation of Na+,K+-ATPase and eNOS activities. The latter 2 enzymes are both deficient in several tissues in type 1 diabetes. There is some evidence that C-peptide, and insulin may interact synergistically on the insulin signaling pathway. Clinical evidence suggests that replacement of C-peptide, together with regular insulin therapy, may be beneficial in patients with type 1 diabetes and serve to retard or prevent the development of long-term complications.

Copyright © 2004 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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