Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Experimental Diabetes Research
Volume 2011, Article ID 564316, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/564316
Clinical Study

Cardiac Function in 7-8-Year-Old Offspring of Women with Type 1 Diabetes

1Department of Pediatrics, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85090, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
2Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85090, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meander Medical Center, P.O. Box 1502, 3800 BM Amersfoort, The Netherlands
4Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, P.O. Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands

Received 21 May 2011; Revised 17 August 2011; Accepted 29 August 2011

Academic Editor: Barbara Alexander

Copyright © 2011 Maarten Rijpert et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. M. Evers, H. W. de Valk, and G. H. A. Visser, “Risk of complications of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetesnationwide prospective study in the Netherlands,” British Medical Journal, vol. 328, no. 7445, pp. 915–918, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. U. Simeoni and D. J. Barker, “Offspring of diabetic pregnancy: long-term outcomes,” Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 119–124, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Plagemann, T. Harder, R. Kohlhoff, W. Rohde, and G. Dörner, “Overweight and obesity in infants of mothers with long-term insulin-dependent diabetes or gestational diabetes,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 451–456, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  4. C. M. Boney, A. Verma, R. Tucker, and B. R. Vohr, “Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus,” Pediatrics, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. e290–e296, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. A. M. Roest, L. van Iperen, S. Vis et al., “Exposure of neural crest cells to elevated glucose leads to congenital heart defects, an effect that can be prevented by N-acetylcysteine,” Birth Defects Research Part A—Clinical and Molecular Teratology, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 231–235, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. G. M. Molin, P. A. M. Roest, H. Nordstrand et al., “Disturbed morphogenesis of cardiac outflow tract and increased rate of aortic arch anomalies in the offspring of diabetic rats,” Birth Defects Research Part A—Clinical and Molecular Teratology, vol. 70, no. 12, pp. 927–938, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. M. Jensen, P. Damm, L. Moelsted-Pedersen et al., “Outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies: a nationwide, population-based study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2819–2823, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. C. M. Macintosh, K. M. Fleming, J. A. Bailey et al., “Perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies in babies of women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland: population based study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 333, no. 7560, pp. 177–180, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. M. Abu-Sulaiman and B. Subaih, “Congenital heart disease in infants of diabetic mothers: echocardiographic study,” Pediatric Cardiology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 137–140, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. J. Walther, B. Siassi, J. King, and P. Y. K. Wu, “Cardiac output in infants of insulin-dependent diabetic mothers,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 109–114, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. D. Reller and S. Kaplan, “Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in infants of diabetic mothers: an update,” American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 353–358, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Oberhoffer, J. Högel, F. Stoz, E. Kohne, and D. Lang, “Cardiac and extracardiac complications in infants of diabetic mothers and their relation to parameters of carbohydrate metaholism,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 262–265, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Ullmo, Y. Vial, S. Di Bernardo et al., “Pathologic ventricular hypertrophy in the offspring of diabetic mothers: a retrospective study,” European Heart Journal, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1319–1325, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. K. Deorari, A. Saxena, M. Singh, and S. Shrivastava, “Echocardiographic assessment of infants born to diabetic mothers,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 721–724, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Rizzo, D. Arduini, and C. Romanini, “Cardiac function in fetuses of type I diabetic mothers,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 164, no. 3, pp. 837–843, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. A. Lisowski, P. M. Verheijen, M. M. C. de Smedt, G. H. A. Visser, and E. J. Meijboom, “Altered fetal circulation in type-1 diabetic pregnancies,” Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 365–369, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Kozák-Bárány, E. Jokinen, P. Kero, J. Tuominen, T. Rönnemaa, and I. Välimäki, “Impaired left ventricular diastolic function in newborn infants of mothers with pregestational or gestational diabetes with good glycemic control,” Early Human Development, vol. 77, no. 1-2, pp. 13–22, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. N. E. Russell, M. Foley, B. T. Kinsley, R. G. Firth, M. Coffey, and F. M. McAuliffe, “Effect of pregestational diabetes mellitus on fetal cardiac function and structure,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 199, no. 3, pp. 312.e1–312.e7, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. E. Reinking, E. W. Wedemeyer, R. M. Weiss, J. L. Segar, and T. D. Scholz, “Cardiomyopathy in offspring of diabetic rats is associated with activation of the MAPK and apoptotic pathways,” Cardiovascular Diabetology, vol. 8, article 43, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. L. S. Lindegaard, E. M. M. Svarrer, P. Damm, E. R. Mathiesen, and L. B. Nielsen, “Increased LDL cholesterol and CRP in infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 465–471, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Rijpert, I. M. Evers, M. A. M. J. de Vroede, H. W. de Valk, C. J. Heijnen, and G. H. A. Visser, “Risk factors for childhood overweight in offspring of type 1 diabetic women with adequate glycemic control during pregnancy: nationwide follow-up study in the Netherlands,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 2099–2104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Rijpert, I. M. Evers, H. W. de Valk et al., “Cardiovascular and metabolic outcome in 6-8year old offspring of women with type 1 diabetes with near-optimal glycaemic control during pregnancy,” Early Human Development, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 49–54, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. H. A. Visser, P. H. C. Eilers, P. M. Elferink-Stinkens, H. M. W. M. Merkus, and J. M. Wit, “New Dutch reference curves for birthweight by gestational age,” Early Human Development, vol. 85, no. 12, pp. 737–744, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. D. Pettersen, W. Du, M. E. Skeens, and R. A. Humes, “Regression equations for calculation of Z scores of cardiac structures in a large cohort of healthy infants, children, and adolescents: an echocardiographic study,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 922–934, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. W. Eidem, C. J. McMahon, R. R. Cohen et al., “Impact of cardiac growth on doppler tissue imaging velocities: a study in healthy children,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 212–221, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. Kapusta, J. M. Thijssen, J. Groot-Loonen, T. Antonius, J. Mulder, and O. Daniëls, “Tissue Doppler imaging in detection of myocardial dysfunction in survivors of childhood cancer treated with anthracyclines,” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1099–1108, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. A. Roberson, W. Cui, Z. Chen, L. F. Madronero, and B. F. Cuneo, “Annular and septal doppler tissue imaging in children: normal z-score tables and effects of age, heart rate, and body surface area,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1276–1284, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. K. Oh, C. P. Appleton, L. K. Hatle, R. A. Nishimura, J. B. Seward, and A. J. Tajik, “The noninvasive assessment of left ventricular diastolic function with two-dimensional and doppler echocardiography,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 246–270, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. F. Nagueh, C. P. Appleton, T. C. Gillebert et al., “Recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by echocardiography,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 107–133, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. L. Nold and M. K. Georgieff, “Infants of diabetic mothers,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 619–637, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Demiroren, L. Cam, B. Oran et al., “Echocardiographic measurements in infants of diabetic mothers and macrosomic infants of nondiabetic mothers,” Journal of Perinatal Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 232–235, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. M. Vela-Huerta, A. Vargas-Origel, and A. Olvera-Lopez, “Asymmetrical septal hypertrophy in newborn infants of diabetic mothers,” American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 89–94, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Freinkel, “Of pregnancy and progeny,” Diabetes, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1023–1035, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Kerssen, H. W. de Valk, and G. H. A. Visser, “Do HbA1c levels and the self-monitoring of blood glucose levels adequately reflect glycaemic control during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus?” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 25–28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus