Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors Protect against Diabetic Retinopathy
Fundus photographs (a, c) and retinal fluorescence angiography (b, d) of a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. (a, b) and (c, d) are images of the same part of the retina. The Fundus photographs revealed widely scattered spots on the retina, which represent microaneurysms (white star in c). In addition, we observed that the macular foveal reflex had disappeared. Yellow-white exudates were apparent on the temporal area of the macula (white arrow in a). The angiograms were obtained during the arterial phase (b) and the late arteriovenous phase (d), after injection of dye into an antecubital vein. Retinal neovascularization was observed adjacent to areas of vascular nonperfusion (white arrow in d). The multiple, tiny fluorescent dots (white star in d) are microaneurysms. The blood-retinal barrier breakdown manifests as neovascular lesions, which fluoresce brightly and appear blurred as the dye leaks from the vascular lumina (black arrow in b).
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