Table 2: Selected clinical trials of VEGF antagonists in treatment of diabetic macular edema.

Agent (no. patients)Main outcomesReference

Pegaptanib (260)More favorable outcomes versus sham at 2 years[43]
Bevacizumab
 DRCR phase II (121)More favorable outcomes versus photocoagulation at 3 weeks[45]
 BOLT study (80)More favorable outcomes versus photocoagulation at 1 year[46]
Ranibizumab
 READ-2 study (126)More favorable outcomes versus photocoagulation at 2 years[53]
 DRCR protocol I (691)Ranibizumab with photocoagulation more favorable than photocoagulation alone at 2 years[54]
 RESTORE study (345)Ranibizumab with or without photocoagulation more favorable than photocoagulation alone at 1 year[57]
 RISE/RIDE studies (377)More favorable outcomes versus sham at 2 years[59]
 RESOLVE study (151)More favorable outcomes versus sham at 1 year[60]
Aflibercept
 DA VINCI study (219)More favorable outcomes versus photocoagulation at 1 year[66]