Mitochondrial Dysregulation in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes: Potential for Mitochondrial Biogenesis-Mediated Interventions
(a) Mitochondrial morphology proteins in type 2 diabetes. The research volunteers that participated in this study were obese subjects with type 2 diabetes undergoing coronary bypass surgery and were all male between 48 and 75 years of age. Biopsies from the vastus medialis muscle were removed from both control and type 2 diabetic subjects from within incisions of the inner thigh and protein analyses performed. The protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committees of Laval University and Laval Hospital, and all subjects provided informed written consent. Representative western blots of fusion proteins Mfn2 and OPA1 and fission proteins Drp1 and Fis1 from the vastus medialis muscle of control (Con) and type 2 diabetic subjects (Dia). A summary of repeated experiments is shown below with values expressed as a fold over control. Values are means ± SE; ; versus Con. (b) Indicators of apoptotic susceptibility in type 2 diabetes. Western blots of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the proapoptotic protein Bax in vastus medialis muscle of Con and Dia individuals and the graphical representation of the data is shown below. Values are means ± SE; . (c) The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in Dia subjects when compared to Con.